The composition and choice of foods

Chapter 13

The composition and choice of foods

The range of materials that can be used as food is very great. More than 100 different animal species and 300 plant species are used regularly as human food. Even so the major part of the world’s total food supply is furnished by a mere 20 plant species, namely:

Cereals: rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, rye, barley and buckwheat.

Legumes: peas, beans and lentils.

Root crops: potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava and sugar beet.

Miscellaneous: coconuts, groundnuts, bananas, plaintains and sugar cane.

The approximate composition of the more common foodstuffs and many of the foods prepared from them can be obtained from food tables such as those of McCance and Widdowson (Table 13.4). Such tables, though extremely useful, can serve merely as guidelines since they only give average values. Apart from this, the actual amount of nutrients obtained from food will depend on the efficiency of the consumer’s digestive processes, how fresh the food was, how it was cooked and how much was wasted.

Table 13.4

The composition of selected foods (per 100 g foodstuff)

Foodstuff Energy Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg)
  kJ kcal          
Milk (cow) 276 66 3·4 3·7 4·8 120 0·08
Milk (human) 285 68 2·0 3·7 6·9 25 0·07
Cream (double) 1820 462 1·5 48·2 2·0 50 0·20
Cheese (Cheddar) 1780 425 25·4 34·5 tr. 810 0·57
Eggs, fresh whole 682 163 11·9 12·3 0 56 2·53
Egg white 155 37 9·0 tr. 0 5 0·10
Egg yolk 1470 350 16·2 30·5 0 131 6·13
Bacon, streaky fried 2200 526 24·0 46·0 0 52·3 3·2
Beef, roast, lean and fat 1620 385 21·3 32·1 0 5·8 4·6
Chicken, boiled, weighed with bone 851 203 26·2 10·3 0 10·7 2·1
Liver – calf, fried 1100 262 29·0 14·5 2·4 8·8 21·7
Cod, fried 590 140 20·7 4·7 2·9 49·6 1·0
Herring, baked in vinegar 759 189 16·9 12·9 0 58·2 1·6
Salmon, fresh steamed, no skin or bone 835 199 19·1 13·0 0 28·9 0·8
Flour (English 100%) 1400 333 8·9 2·2 73·4 35·5 3·05
Flour (Manitoba 100%) 1420 339 13·6 2·5 69·1 27·6 3·81
Bread (white) 1020 243 7·8 1·4 52·7 92 1·8
Bread (brown) 1010 242 8·7 2·1 49·9 95 2·44
Rice, polished, boiled 510 122 2·1 0·3 29·6 1·3 0·16
Cornflakes 1540 367 6·6 0·8 88·2 7·4 2·8
Oatmeal (porridge) 189 45 1·4 0·9 8·2 6·3 0·47
Beans, baked 390 93 6·0 0·4 17·3 61·6 2·05
Cabbage, spring, boiled 33 8 1·1 tr. 0·8 30·0 0·45
Carrots, old, boiled 80 19 0·6 tr. 4·3 36·9 0·37
Peas, fresh, boiled 210 49 5·0 tr. 7·7 12·6 1·22
Potatoes, old, mashed 505 120 1·5 5·0 18·0 11·7 0·45
Potatoes, new, boiled 315 75 1·6 tr. 18·3 5·0 0·46
Apples, English, eating 189 45 0·3 tr. 11·7 3·5 0·29
Bananas 324 77 1·1 tr. 19·2 6·8 0·41
Oranges, weighed with peel and pips 113 27 0·6 tr. 6·4 31·0 0·25
Lard 3850 920 tr. 99·0 0 0·8 0·1
Margarine 3340 795 0·2 85·3 0 4·1 0·3
Olive oil 3900 930 tr. 99·9 0 0·5 0·1
Boiled sweets 1379 327 tr. tr. 87·3 4·8 0·43
Chocolate (plain) 2280 544 5·6 35·2 52·5 63·0 2·9
Icecream 820 196 4·1 11·3 19·8 137 0·27
Liquorice Allsorts 1320 315 3·9 2·2 74·1 62·9 8·05
Biscuits (cream crackers) 2335 557 8·5 33·0 57·5 96 1·48
Biscuits (sweet, mixed) 2330 556 5·5 30·7 66·5 83 1·2
Spaghetti 1530 365 9·9 1·0 84·0 22·6 1·21
Butter 3340 793 0·4 85·1 tr. 15 0·16
Ham, boiled, lean and fat 1820 435 16·3 39·6 0 12·7 2·5
Mutton, leg, roast 1225 292 25·0 20·4 0 4·3 4·3
Mutton chop, fried lean and fat (weighed with bone) 2150 512 12·6 49·0 2·1 11·4 21
  kJ kcal          
Potatoes, old ‘chips’ 1000 239 3·8 9·0 37·3 13·8 1·35
Draught ale (bitter) 132 31 0·25 tr. 2·25 10·8 0·01
Cider (sweet) 176 42 tr. 0 4·28 7·9 0·49
Sherry (dry) 478 114 0·19 0 1·36 7·1 0·39
Champagne 311 74 0·25 0 1·40 3·4 0·50
Spirits (70% proof) 930 222 tr. 0 tr. tr tr.
Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Dec 10, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on The composition and choice of foods
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes