Emphysema: Assessment, Analysis, and Associated Dental Management Guidelines
Emphysema is a disease state associated with abnormal and permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles. There is destruction of the walls with or without fibrosis and loss of elastic recoil of the lungs.
The long-standing history of smoking, cough with expectoration, and progressive dyspnea are quite suggestive of emphysema, and spirometry clinches the diagnosis. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis, when present together, constitute COPD.