A total of 385 patients with the number of 492 condylar fractures underwent open surgery were followed up from 2001 to 2010. Postoperative TMJ ankylosis was observed in 18 patients with 29 joints (5.9%) during 3 months to 10 years follow up. There were statistically significant differences in side of condylar fracture and fractures combined with mandibular fractures associated with postoperative TMJ ankylosis, and no statistically significant difference was found in gender and age at injury. The most common type of condylar fractures with postoperative ankylosis was head (75.9%, n = 22), followed by neck (24.1%, n = 7), none in subcondylar fractures. The high risk factors for TMJ ankylosis included fixation with plate and wire or removal of fragment, the damaged articular disc, and associated with mandibular fractures and the remanent fractured fragment.