Introduction: In clinical practice different bone substitute biomaterials are used for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Due to biocompatibility with living body and bioactivity hydroxyapatite (HAP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic ceramic (HAP/TCP) are frequently used. Data in the literature of tissue and cell responses to the bioceramic materials are different and sometimes controversial.
Aim: To evaluate cell response to different bioceramic bone substitutes in vitro and bone and soft tissue response in animal experiments.
Material and methods: CaP powders used for bone substitutes preparation was synthesized by wet precipitation reaction between calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. The green bodies – granules in size range from 0.5 to 1 mm (used for in vivo experiments) and pellets (used for in vitro experiments) were formed and sintered to obtain HAP, TCP or HAP/TCP ceramics.
Cytotoxicity and proliferation tests were performed on human osteoblasts (MG63-GFP). Intraosal implantation of bioceramic granules was performed in rabbit jaw. Bone and soft tissue with biomaterial was obtained after three months. Tissues were proceeded for the detection of growth factors – bone morphogenic protein (BMP2/4) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ), proinflammatory cytokines and using TUNEL method – apoptosis.
Results: Results in vitro showed increased osteoblast proliferation on biphasic ceramic (HAP/TCP) in comparison with HAP and TCP.
Results in vivo demonstrated most pronounced proinflammatory cytokines expression after TCP bioceramic implantation. Results after biphasic ceramic implantation showed less cell apoptosis.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated higher biocompatibility for biphasic bioceramic HAP/TCP (60/40) compared with HAP and TCP.
Conflict of interest: None declared.