Objective: To evaluate allogenous in comparison to autogenous bone grafts in sinus augmentation followed by implants placement.
Materials and methods: Ten patients with posterior maxillary alveolar residual crest <3 mm were selected for bilateral sinus augmentation followed by implant placement after 6 months (split-mouth model). The control side was augmented with autogenous particulated bone from the mandibular ramus and the test side with allograft. Immediate postoperative and pre implantation CT scans (6 months after grafting) were used to measure bone volume and density. Bone biopsies were removed with 2 mm trephines for histological examination. Patients were followed clinically for assessment of osseointegration of implants.
Results: There was no statistical difference between groups in terms of grafted volumes either in the immediate post-op ( p = 0.09), or after 6 months ( p = 0.17). Both treatments showed bone resorption 6 months after sinus augmentation ( p = 0.24). Test side presented more bone radiopacity in the pre-implantation time ( p = 0.005). Histologically, new bone formation was observed in both groups. The test group showed acellular residual allograft in close contact with newly formed bone. There was no osseointegration failure of any of the 46 implants placed in the grafted areas in a follow-up period of 14.2 ± 7.8 months.
Conclusion: Allografts showed similar rate resorption and volume maintaining, with higher radiodensity after 6 months. Histologic findings did not affect clinically the osseointegration of implants. Allograft seems to possess a potential for sinus augmentation prior to implant placement.
Conflict of interest: None declared.