2 Oral Anatomy and Physiology

2  Oral Anatomy and Physiology

Multiple choice questionss

1. The teeth of both jaws are held in bony sockets by their periodontal ligaments. Which one of the following bones forms the sockets?

(a) Alveolar process
(b) Coronoid process
(c) Mandible
(d) Maxilla
(e) Ramus
2. Saliva is the watery fluid secreted by the salivary glands that is naturally present in the healthy oral cavity. Which one of the following main constituents of saliva acts as a buffering agent?

(a) Enzymes
(b) Immunoglobulins
(c) Inorganic ions
(d) Leucocytes
(e) Water
3. A patient re-attends the surgery after previously undergoing the surgical removal of the lower right third molar tooth. He complains of a ‘numb’ sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the right side of his tongue. Which one of the following nerves is most likely to have been damaged during the surgical procedure?

(a) Facial nerve
(b) Inferior dental nerve
(c) Lingual nerve
(d) Long buccal nerve
(e) Mental nerve
4. The four pairs of muscles of mastication are responsible for effecting jaw movement and mouth closure during chewing. Which one of the following is the most powerful of these muscles during mastication?

(a) Lateral pterygoid
(b) Masseter
(c) Medial pterygoid
(d) Orbicularis oris
(e) Temporalis
5. The head and neck region are innervated by the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Many of these nerves carry both motor and sensory nerve fibres, so they transmit messages to the brain for interpretation and action messages from the brain to the muscles. Which one of the following nerves transmits taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue?

(a) Facial nerve
(b) Glossopharyngeal nerve
(c) Hypoglossal nerve
(d) Mandibular nerve
(e) Maxillary nerve
6. The lower first permanent molar teeth are amongst the first of the secondary dentition to erupt. Which one of the following options states the correct arrangement of their roots in the mandible?

(a) Buccal and lingual
(b) Lingual, mesiobuccal and distobuccal
(c) Mesial and distal
(d) Palatal and buccal
(e) Palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal
7. A 60-year-old patient attends the surgery for the simple extraction of the lower right second premolar tooth, which is periodontally involved and mobile. To ensure the procedure is carried out painlessly, the dentist must anaesthetise which pair of the following combinations of nerves?

(a) Inferior dental and long buccal nerves
(b) Inferior dental and mental nerves
(c) Lingual and long buccal nerves
(d) Lingual and mental nerves
(e) Long buccal and mental nerves
8. The skull is the anatomical term for the head and can be divided into three regions: the cranium, the face, and the jaws. The cranium is made up of bony plates that lock together at the coronoid sutures. Which one of the following bony plates forms the base of the posterior part of the cranium?

(a) Frontal bone
(b) Occipital bone
(c) Parietal bone
(d) Sphenoid bone
(e) Temporal bone
9. The alveolar bone, gingiva, and periodontal ligament are together known as the supporting structures of the teeth. The periodontal ligament itself is composed of a protein called collagen, which gives the structure strength and resistance to tearing during mastication. Which one of the following cell types is responsible for the formation of collagen?

(a) Ameloblasts
(b) Chondroblasts
(c) Fibroblasts
(d) Odontoblasts
(e) Osteoblasts
10. Dentine is the calcified tissue that forms the bulk of the tooth, and lies beneath the enamel and cementum. Which one of the following cell types forms dentine?

(a) Ameloblast
(b) Chondroblast
(c) Fibroblast
(d) Odontoblast
(e) Osteoblast
11. The four pairs of muscles of mastication are responsible for effecting jaw movements and jaw closure during chewing. Which one of the following muscles contracts to allow the movement of the jaw from side to side?

(a) Buccinator
(b) Lateral pterygoid
(c) Masseter
(d) Medial pterygoid
(e) Temporalis
12. A 39-year-old patient attends the surgery for the extraction of the upper right canine tooth, which is labially placed and now periodontally involved. To ensure the tooth is extracted painlessly, the dentist must anaesthetise which pair of the following combinations of nerves?

(a) Anterior superior dental and greater palatine nerves
(b) Anterior superior dental and long buccal nerves
(c) Anterior superior dental and nasopalatine nerves
(d) Middle superior dental and greater palatine nerves
(e) Middle superior dental and nasopalatine nerves
13. The lateral incisor teeth are the smallest in each dental arch. Some patients exhibit a congenital absence of these teeth in the upper arch, but in those individuals with a full dentition the upper lateral incisors normally erupt at a known average age. Which one of the following is the most likely average age of eruption?

(a) 6–7 years
(b) 7–8 years
(c) 8–9 years
(d) 9–11 years
(e) 12–13 years
14. The mandible forms the horseshoe-shaped lower jaw of the oral cavity, and articulates with the temporal bone of the skull at a certain anatomical structure to form the temporomandibular joint. Which one of the following options is the most likely name of this anatomical structure?

(a) Body
(b) Condyle
(c) Lingula
(d) Ramus
(e) Symphysis
15. The four pairs of muscles of mastication are responsible for the sideways and forwards movements of the lower jaw, as well as mouth closure during chewing movements and speech. Which one of the following nerves has a motor branch that provides their innervation?

(a) Facial
(b) Glossopharyngeal
(c) Hypoglossal
(d) Mandibular
(e) Maxillary
16. Swallowing is a complex muscular action which aims to direct chewed food into the oesophagus and then the stomach, where the process of digestion can continue. The food bolus is prevented from passing into the nasal cavity during swallowing by the action of which one of the following anatomical structures?
(a) Epiglottis
(b) Soft palate
(c) Tongue
(d) Tonsils
(e) Uvula
17. Saliva is the watery secretion formed by the three pairs of major salivary glands and the minor salivary glands, which are dotted around the oral cavity. They are examples of exocrine glands, and the largest of all secretes its contents into the oral cavity by which one of the following methods?

(a) Through its walls into the blood
(b) Through its walls into the tissues
(c) Through Stenson’s duct
(d) Through sublingual ducts
(e) Through Wharton’s duct
18. The inferior dental nerve supplies the lower teeth and their buccal and labial supporting structures, and enters the mandible at the mandibular foramen. Which one of the following anatomical structures protects the nerve from damage before it enters the mandible?

(a) Body
(b) Condyle
(c) Lingula
(d) Ramus
(e) Symphysis
19. A 17-year-old patient attends for the restoration of the lower left first molar tooth, by the preparation and placement of a full gold crown onto the tooth. As the tooth is fractured buccally, a crown lengthening procedure will also be carried out at the preparation stage. To ensure this first stage of the restorative procedure is carried out painlessly, the dentist must anaesthetise which pair of the following combinations of nerves?

(a) Inferior dental and lingual nerves
(b) Inferior dental and long buccal nerves
(c) Lingual and long buccal nerves
(d) Long buccal and mental nerves
(e) Mental and lingual nerves
20. The upper second molar teeth are usually the last of the secondary dentition to erupt, barring the third molars or ‘wisdom teeth’. Their roots are arranged in the maxilla according to which one of the following options?

(a) Buccal and lingual
(b) Lingual, mesiobuccal and distobuccal
(c) Mesial and distal
(d) Palatal and buccal
(e) Palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal
21. Enamel is the calcified tissue that covers the crown of the tooth. It is composed of hydroxyapatite crystals in a prism arrangement, and is formed before birth. Which one of the following cell types is responsible for its formation?

(a) Ameloblast
(b) Chondroblast
(c) Fibroblast
(d) Odontoblast
(e) Osteoblast
22. The mandible is the horseshoe-shaped bone forming the lower jaw. It is actually composed of two bones that have fused together in early life, giving the resultant rigid structure. Which one of the following is the anatomical reference for the point at which the two bones fuse together?

(a) Genial tubercles
(b) Mental symphysis
(c) Mylohyoid ridge
(d) Ramus
(e) Sigmoid notch
23. A 46-year-old kidney transplant patient attends for the removal of hyperplastic gingivae overlying the upper right molar teeth. To ensure the procedure is carried out painlessly, the dentist must anaesthetise which pair of the following combinations of nerves?

(a) Greater palatine and middle superior dental nerves
(b) Middle and anterior superior dental nerves
(c) Middle and posterior superior dental nerves
(d) Nasopalatine and middle superior dental nerves
(e) Posterior superior dental and greater palatine nerves
24. The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve, and supplies the majority of the oral cavity. A branch of the mandibular division runs from the inner surface of the ramus of the mandible and then over the external oblique ridge to suppl/>

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Jan 8, 2015 | Posted by in Dental Nursing and Assisting | Comments Off on 2 Oral Anatomy and Physiology
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