13: SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS

SECTION 13

SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS

Many procedures may involve an invasive surgical approach, requiring special dental instruments. Due to the specialised nature of this area, some of these instruments may not be used in the general dental surgery, and some of these procedures may be carried out in conjunction with various sedation techniques. It is important that during these procedures the dental team tries to maintain the most sterile field possible.

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Figure 13.1

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Figure 13.2

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Figure 13.3

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GENERAL SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS

FIGURE 13.1

Name

Towel clip

Function

Used to secure bibs and towels in place

Varieties

Various sizes and shapes available

FIGURE 13.2

Name

McKesson mouth prop

Function and feature

  • Used to prop open mouth
  • Attached to a parachute chain for retrieval in case of displacement (made of rubber to protect teeth)

Varieties

  • Various colours and shapes available
  • Available in small, medium and large sizes, or sizes 1, 2 and 3

FIGURE 13.3

Name

Mouth spreader/gag

Functions

  • Used to prop open mouth
  • A locking mechanism on handle props open the mouth
  • Can be used during sedation procedures

Varieties

Various sizes and shapes available

Figure 13.4

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Figure 13.5

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FIGURE 13.4

Name

Kilner cheek retractor

Functions

  • Retraction of cheek
  • Aids in visibility
  • Protection of tissues

FIGURE 13.5

Name

Austin retractor

Functions

  • Aids in visibility
  • Protection of tissues
  • Retraction of cheek and tongue

FIGURE 13.6

Name

Bowdler Henry rake retractor

Functions

  • Retraction of periodontal flap during surgical procedures
  • Aids in visibility
  • Protection of tissues

Figure 13.6

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Figure 13.7

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Figure 13.8

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Figure 13.9

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FIGURE 13.7

Name

Minnesota retractor

Functions

  • Aids in visibility
  • Protection of tissues
  • Retraction of the cheek and tongue

Varieties

Different varieties of retractors available

FIGURE 13.8a, b, c

Name

Howarths periosteal elevator

Family

Elevators

Functions and features

  • Retraction
  • To separate the tissue from the bone
  • One working end is a pointed tip and the other is rounded with sharp edges

Varieties

Different lengths and shapes of working ends available

False friend

Bone file

FIGURE 13.9a, b

Name

(a) Stainless steel scalpel handle (b) Disposable scalpel handle and scalpel blade

Functions and features

  • Scalpel handle holds disposable scalpel blade securely
  • Surgical blade used to make incisions intra-orally
  • Stainless steel scalpel handle – autoclavable

Varieties

  • Can have a plastic scalpel handle – disposable
  • Various sizes and shapes of scalpel blades available

Figure 13.10

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Figure 13.11

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Figure 13.12

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FIGURE 13.10

Name

Disposable scalpel blade

Function and features

  • Scalpel blades are used to make incisions
  • Made of surgical carbon steel
  • Different shapes for different procedures (e.g. 11 blade and 15 blade)
  • Single use
  • Disposed of in the sharps’ container
  • Supplied in a sterile package

Varieties

Available in different shapes, sizes and lengths depending on procedure

FIGURE 13.11

Name

Mitchells trimmer

Functions

  • To aid in raising the mucoperiosteal flap for access
  • To aid in removing pathology

False friend

Wards carver

FIGURE 13.12

Name

Spoon curette/surgical curette

Function

Used in the socket of an extracted tooth to remove debris and infectious material

Variations

Shank can be straight, curved or shaped like a spoon, with different sizes of working ends

False friend

Spoon excavator

Figure 13.13

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Figure 13.14

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FIGURE 13.13a, b

Name

(a) Curved surgical scissors (b) Straight surgical scissors

Function

Sharp pointed scissors are used for cutting soft tissues in surgical procedures

Variations

  • Different lengths and sizes available
  • Working ends can be curved or straight

False friends

Suture scissors, blunt scissors

FIGURE 13.14a, b

Name

(a) Bone rongeurs (b) Bone nibblers

Function and features

  • Used to trim sharp edges of bone remaining after extractions
  • Usually used during multiple extractions
  • Have a spring mechanism between the handles
  • Have a sharpened working end
  • Can be end-cutting or side-cutting
  • Can be used in any quadrant in the mouth

False friend

Extraction forceps

Figure 13.15

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Figure 13.16

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FIGURE 13.15a, b

Name

Bone file

Function and direction for use

  • Used to remove and smooth sharp pieces of alveolar bone remaining after extraction
  • Used with a push–pull action

False friend

Periosteal elevator

FIGURE 13.16a, b, c

Name

(a, b) Metal autoclavable surgical suction tips (c) Plastic disposable surgical suction tip

Function

For suction in surgical procedures

Varieties

  • Different sizes and shapes available
  • Can be made of metal, plastic or sterile disposable plastic

Figure 13.17

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Jan 8, 2015 | Posted by in Dental Nursing and Assisting | Comments Off on 13: SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS
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