1 General Anatomy and Physiology

1  General Anatomy and Physiology

Multiple choice questions

1. The heart is a muscular pump situated in the thoracic cavity. Which one of the following blood vessels delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium?

(a) Aorta
(b) Inferior vena cava
(c) Pulmonary artery
(d) Pulmonary vein
(e) Superior vena cava
2. The liver is a large organ situated in the upper region of the abdominal cavity. It is an accessory organ of the digestive system and has many functions, including which one of the following?

(a) Clotting factor production
(b) Erythrocyte production
(c) Insulin production
(d) Leucocyte production
(e) Pepsin production
3. During respiration, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the lungs alters during the process of gaseous exchange. Which one of the following represents the approximate amount of carbon dioxide present in expired air?
(a) 4%
(b) 8%
(c) 12%
(d) 16%
(e) 20%
4. Food is moved through various sections of the digestive tract by the involuntary action of its smooth muscle walls. These act rhythmically to create a wave-like movement along the gut that carries the food mass along. Which one of the following is the correct term for this movement?

(a) Deglutition
(b) Digestion
(c) Dysphagia
(d) Mastication
(e) Peristalsis
5. The function of the lungs is to allow the uptake of oxygen from air into the blood, and the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood to the air. Which one of the following is the anatomical structure where this gaseous exchange process occurs?

(a) Alveoli
(b) Aorta
(c) Bronchiole
(d) Pulmonary artery
(e) Trachea
6. The three main types of blood vessel found throughout the body are arteries, capillaries and veins. An anatomical feature found specifically in larger veins prevents the backflow of blood. Which one of the following is this feature?

(a) Muscular walls
(b) Rich blood supply
(c) Thick elastic layer
(d) Thin endothelium
(e) Valves
7. A new patient attends the surgery for a routine dental examination. On completion of her medical history form it is noted that she is taking salbutamol. Which one of the following conditions is the patient most likely to have?

(a) Angina
(b) Asthma
(c) Diabetes
(d) Epilepsy
(e) Fainting
8. A patient attending for an examination complains of a sore tongue, and the dentist diagnoses xerostomia. Which one of the following medications is most likely to be associated with this condition?

(a) Analgesic
(b) Antihistamine
(c) Bisphosphonate
(d) Diuretic
(e) Hormone replacement
9. During respiration, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the lungs alters during the process of gaseous exchange. Which one of the following represents the approximate amount of oxygen in expired air?

(a) 4%
(b) 8%
(c) 12%
(d) 16%
(e) 20%
10. A medication taken by a patient will eventually break down and be excreted. Which one of the following conditions is most likely to affect this detoxifi­cation process?

(a) Duodenal ulcer
(b) Gallstones
(c) Kidney stones
(d) Liver disease
(e) Ulcerative colitis
11. On completing a medical history form, a patient has disclosed that he suffers from ulcerative colitis and is taking long-term steroids for the condition. Which one of the following areas of the digestive system is most likely to be affected by this condition?

(a) Large intestine
(b) Liver
(c) Pancreas
(d) Small intestine
(e) Stomach
12. All body cells require oxygen in order to work and function. Which one of the following is the means by which it is transported from the lungs to the heart and then around the body?

(a) Erythrocytes
(b) Leucocytes
(c) Plasma
(d) Platelets
(e) Thrombocytes
13. During the act of swallowing, the bolus of food is moved from the mouth into the throat by the voluntary action of the tongue muscles. Once beyond the mouth, the bolus is prevented from being inhaled instead of swallowed by an anatomical structure that seals the trachea. Which one of the following is the structure referred to?

(a) Epiglottis
(b) Larynx
(c) Pharynx
(d) Tongue
(e) Vocal cords
14. Carbon dioxide is the waste product formed by cells as they work to produce energy. It is transported from the cells to the heart, and then to the lungs for removal from the body during expiration. Which one of the following is the means by which this is achieved?

(a) Erythrocytes
(b) Leucocytes
(c) Plasma
(d) Platelets
(e) Thrombocytes
15. On a medical history form a patient has disclosed that she has been diagnosed with type II diabetes and has been prescribed metformin. Which one of the following oral health problems may be caused by this condition?

(a) Angular cheilitis
(b) Aphthous ulcers
(c) Erosion
(d) Poor wound healing
(e) Stomatitis
16. Throughout the nervous system, nervous impulses are transmitted as electrical charges along specialised cells, the neurones. Which one of the following conditions is most likely to occur when electrical activity becomes suddenly disorganised?

(a) Grand mal
(b) Motor neurone disease
(c) Multiple sclerosis
(d) Myocardial infarction
(e) Stroke
17. A patient attends for root canal therapy and restoration of the upper right canine tooth following loss of vitality after a blow to the face. Which one of the following medical conditions must be ruled out before proceeding with the endodontic treatment?

(a) Asthma
(b) Bronchitis
(c) Eczema
(d) Latex allergy
(e) Penicillin allergy
18. Patients who have undergone surgery and have been incapacitated for a while are at risk of developing a deep vein thrombosis. Which one of the following blood vessels is most likely to become blocked if the thrombus becomes dislodged?

(a) Aorta
(b) Brachial artery
(c) Carotid artery
(d) Coronary artery
(e) Pulmonary artery
19. The nervous system is composed of the brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nerves. The peripheral nerves supplying the head and neck region are called the cranial nerves, and they consist of 12 pairs. Which one of the following pairs of cranial nerves is of most relevance to the inner structures of the oral cavity?

(a) III and V
(b) III and X
(c) IX and XII
(d) V and XII
(e) VII and IX
20. A patient attends the surgery for a routine dental examination, and updates her medical history form as requested. On checking the form, the dentist notices that the patient has stated that she has recently been diagnosed with cirrhosis. Which one of the following organs is most likely to be affected by this condition?

(a) Colon
(b) Gallbladder
(c) Liver
(d) Pancreas
(e) Stomach
21. The pancreas is an accessory organ of the digestive system and lies in the upper abdominal cavity near the stomach. It is essentially a glandular organ, and has many important functions including all except which one of the following options?

(a) Bile production
(b) Carbohydrate digestion
(c) Fat digestion
(d) Insulin production
(e) Protein digestion
22. A patient attends the dental surgery for a surgical extraction of the upper right first molar tooth, under inhalation sedation. However, he has recently been diagnosed with bronchitis so the procedure is cancelled. Which one of the following is the most likely effect that this condition has on the bronchi?

(a) Alveolar widening
(b) Blockage
(c) Dryness
(d) Hypersensitivity response
(e) Inflammation
23. Some patients develop blood clots within their circulation following surgery or after a period of immobility. These blood clots may eventually break free and pass throughout the circulation. Which one of the following is the most likely event when the clot becomes lodged in a cranial blood vessel?

(a) Angina attack
(b) Deep vein thrombosis
(c) Myocardial infarction
(d) Pulmonary embolism
(e) Stroke
24. On a medical history form a patient has disclosed that she contracted hepatitis B while on holiday abroad 3 years ago. Which one of the following conditions is most likely to develop due to this infection?

(a) Duodenal ulcer
(b) Leukaemia
(c) Liver carcinoma
(d) Oral carcinoma
(e) Pancreatitis
25. From time to time, a patient who carries an International Normalised Ratio (INR) card may attend the surgery for dental treatment. Which one of the following medical conditions does the patient suffer from?

(a) Angina
(b) Hypertension
(c) Hypotension
(d) Myocardial infarction
(e) Stroke
26. The base of the skull has numerous anatomical holes that allow the passage of nerves and blood vessels to and from the cranium. Which one of the following is the name of the anatomical hole through which the spinal cord passes?

(a) Foramen magnum
(b) Foramen ovale
(c) Foramen rotundum
(d) Mandibular foramen
(e) Mental foramen
27. On a medical history form a patient has disclosed that he suffers from gastric reflux and has been prescribed omeprazole. Which one of the following oral health problems may be caused by this condition?

(a) Aphthous ulcers
(b) Attrition
(c) Erosion
(d) Glossitis
(e) Xerostomia
28. The coronary arteries are the blood vessels which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle itself. In some patients, these blood vessels may become partially blocked by fatty deposits within the arteries themselves. Which one of the following symptoms is a patient with this condition most likely to experience?

(a) Hypotension
(b) Oedema
(c) Pain on exertion
(d) Slow heart rate
(e) Thready pulse
29. A new patient attends the dental surgery for a routine examination, and comp­letes a medical history form. He states that he suffers from type II diabetes. Which one of the following organs is dysfunctional in patients with this condition?

(a) Gallbladder
(b) Liver
(c) Pancreas
(d) Spleen
(e) Stomach
30. On a medical history form a patient has disclosed that she has recently been diagnosed with osteoarthritis, affecting her wrists, shoulders and neck. Which one of the following oral health problems may be caused by this condition?

(a) Excess salivation
(b) Gagging
(c) Poor denture retention
(d) Poor oral hygiene
(e) Poor wound healing
31. Throughout the body, there are specialised areas of tissue that are responsible for the release of various chemicals directly into the bloodstream. These specialised areas of tissue are called endocrine glands. Which one of the following is classed as an endocrine gland?

(a) Gallbladder
(b) Pancreas
(c) Parotid gland
(d) Sublingual gland
(e) Submandibular gland
32. During minor oral surgery procedures, the patient is likely to experience bleeding at the surgical site. In fit healthy patients this can easily be controlled by the dental team, but other patients with various medical conditions may have to be treated with great caution. Which one of the following medical conditions would not cause concern in this instance?

(a) Angina
(b) Deep vein thrombosis
(c) Haemophilia
(d) Pulmonary embolism
(e) Stroke
33. When patients attend the dental surgery, they are required to complete a medical history form that requests information on any medications they receive. Which one of the following medications is most likely to require the use of a non-adrenaline local anaesthetic?

(a) Analgesics
(b) Antiepileptics
(c) Contraceptive pill
(d) Steroids
(e) Thyroxine
34. On a medical history form a patient has disclosed that he suffers from bronchial asthma. Which one of the following is the most likely effect that this condition has on the bronchi?

(a) Alveolar widening
(b) Blockage
(c) Dryness
(d) Hypersensitivity respo/>

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Jan 8, 2015 | Posted by in Dental Nursing and Assisting | Comments Off on 1 General Anatomy and Physiology
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