Endodontics

Different Lasers Used in Endodontics

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Different Lasers Used in Endodontics

Fig. 5.1 Relative absorption in the visible electromagnetic spectrum of hemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), and melanin (Image courtesy of Giovanni Olivi, Rome, Italy) 5.2.2.1 Argon Laser Argon is a noble…

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Laser-Activated Irrigation (LAI)

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Laser-Activated Irrigation (LAI)

Fig. 10.1 Water absorption coefficient and penetration depth of different wavelengths In addition, the medium infrared lasers (2780–2940 nm) are absorbed also by water in the dentinal walls [28], creating…

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Laser Doppler Flowmetry

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Laser Doppler Flowmetry

Fig. 9.1 Schematic representation of the area of positioning of a probe of a laser Doppler flowmetry monitor. The probe is fixed in contact with the buccal surface of the…

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Pulp Therapy for Primary Teeth

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Pulp Therapy for Primary Teeth

Fig. 8.1 Deep recurrent decay Fig. 8.2 Caries removal using the Er:YAG laser Fig. 8.3 Placement of liner 8.3.3 Pulpotomy The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines this procedure as…

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The Role of Irrigation in Endodontics

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on The Role of Irrigation in Endodontics

Fig. 3.1 Schematic representation of the discussed irrigation techniques. Sketches of the various manual (a, b) and automated (c–e) irrigation techniques. For positive pressure irrigation, (a) both the open-ended (left)…

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The Physics of Lasers

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on The Physics of Lasers

Fig. 4.1 Electromagnetic spectrum of radiations In the visible and invisible infrared spectrum of light, we find the majority of the wavelengths used in dentistry (Fig. 4.2). Fig. 4.2 Lasers…

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Photoactivated Disinfection

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Photoactivated Disinfection

Fig. 7.1 Activation of a photosensitizer (S) by light (hν) to triplet state (*S) and reaction with oxygen (O2) or other substrate (R) in Type I and II photo processes…

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Root Canal Catheterization

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Root Canal Catheterization

Relationships of the pulp chamber to the clinical crown Law of centrality: the floor of the pulp chamber is always located in the center of the tooth at the level…

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Root Canal Obturation

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Root Canal Obturation

Easily manipulated with ample working time Radiopaque and easily discernible on radiographs Dimensionally stable with no shrinkage once inserted Seals the canals laterally and apically conforming to the canal anatomy…

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Endodontic Microsurgery

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Endodontic Microsurgery

Fig 13.1 Clinical radiographs and photographs showing endodontic cases which have failed despite attempts at treatment. (a) Missed anatomy, (b) persistent disease despite well-obturated canal system, (c) overextension resulting in…

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Root Resorption

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Root Resorption

Fig. 16.1 Clinical radiographs demonstrating (a, b) external inflammatory root resorption associated with apical pathosis, (c) external replacement resorption, (d) internal root resorption, (e) orthodontic pressure root resorption, and (f)…

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Non-surgical Root Canal Retreatment

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Non-surgical Root Canal Retreatment

Fig. 10.1 Clinical radiographs demonstrating inadequate root canal fillings with or without poor coronal restorations. Note (a) well-fitting post and core restoration with untreated MB2 and poorly treated MB1, DB,…

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Restoration of the Endodontically Treated Tooth

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Restoration of the Endodontically Treated Tooth

Fig. 17.1 Clinical photographs and radiographs showing pre-endodontic restorability and periodontal assessment considerations. Note: (a–c) tooth 17 presented with gross buccal caries extending subgingivally. A crown-lengthening procedure was not possible…

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Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment

Fig. 4.1 Clinical radiographs demonstrating (a) immediate post-operative view of non-surgical root canal treatment of tooth 47 treated over the course of two visits using an intra-canal medicament. Preparation was…

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Access Preparation

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Access Preparation

Fig. 1.1 Note (a) and (b) clinical periapical radiographs demonstrating nonsurgical root canal treatment of tooth 25. Note they reveal limited two-dimensional view of the true three-dimensional image. Insert shows…

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Cleaning and Shaping Objectives

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Cleaning and Shaping Objectives

Fig. 3.1 Diagrammatic representation of the apical anatomy in a tooth (a) without apical root resorption and (b) a tooth with apical root resorption. Note (1) radiographic apex (dash line)…

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Nonvital Bleaching

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Nonvital Bleaching

A. Extrinsic  (i)  Chromogenic diet (wine, coffee, tea)  (ii) Tobacco  (iii) Mouthrinses  (iv) Plaque B. Intrinsic  (i) Systemic causes    Tetracycline staining    Metabolic disorders (fluorosis, dystrophic calcification)    Genetic (congenital erythropoietic porphyria, amelogenesis imperfecta,…

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Traumatic Injuries

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Traumatic Injuries

Dental hard tissue injury  Enamel infraction  Enamel fracture  Enamel-dentine fracture (uncomplicated crown fracture)  Enamel-dentine-pulp fracture (complicated crown fracture)  Crown-root fracture without pulp exposure  Crown-root fracture with pulp exposure  Root fracture…

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Irrigation and Disinfection

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Irrigation and Disinfection

and cation and then forms an equilibrium with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) that is pH dependent (Fig. 5.1). Pure sodium hypochlorite has a pH of around 12 at which predominates [21]….

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Iatrogenic Perforations

Sep 10, 2016 by in Endodontics Comments Off on Iatrogenic Perforations

Fig. 12.1 Representing different levels of perforation and their associated prognosis. (a) A lateral perforation coronal to the attachment level can be included in the restoration, and provided a seal…

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