Traditionally, periodontal treatment has been delivered using an interdisciplinary model of therapy, with general dentists and specialists providing their respective aspects of care to the same patient per a comprehensive plan of therapy (Figures 68-1 to 68-22). This system has worked well because the patient benefits from the best mix of talent from a “team” of dentists. For periodontal aspects of such care to be most effective, it is critical that the primary provider, often the general practitioner, have a thorough understanding of the signs, symptoms, risk factors, and pathophysiology of disease processes and their related local and systemic risk factors. Additionally, they must also possess a thorough understanding of the available treatment options and their related indications, contraindications, benefits, and liabilities to effectively formulate a proper treatment plan. The dentist then decides whether he or she has the requisite knowledge, expertise, and experience to meet the patient’s needs or whether to refer the patient to a specialist for care at a more advanced level. Conversely, when a single provider (general dentist or specialist) delivers all aspects of the patient’s care, rather than a team of dentists, it is best described as multidisciplinary treatment as opposed to the term interdisciplinary treatment.