Adverse effects of dental biomaterials
|Type I||Anaphylactic reactions—antibody (IgE) mediated||Immunoglobulin antibodies (IgE) bind to receptors on mast cells.
Pharmacologically active compounds may be released.
Clinical effect may be respiratory system obstruction and cardiovascular collapse.
|Type II||Cytolytic or cytotoxic||Immunoglobulins (IgM or IgG) bind to antigens on surface of cells and activate complement.
Activation may result in cytolysis, phagocytosis, and chemotactic reactions.
|Type III||Immune-complex||Occur when complexes made of IgM and IgG antibodies accumulate in blood vessels or tissue and activate the complement system|
|Type IV||Delayed-type hypersensitivity
|Immune response is mediated by T cells, usually CD4+.
Cytokines are released, leading to macrophage activation and resulting in local damage.
Ig, immunoglobulin; IgE, immunoglobulin E; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IgM, immunoglobulin M.
|Type I||Type IV|
|Type of reaction||IgE-mediated anaphylactic||T-cell mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity|