45: Adverse effects of dental biomaterials

45

Adverse effects of dental biomaterials

Figure 45.1 Prevalence of adverse reactions in dental specialties.

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Figure 45.2 Potential adverse reactions.

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Figure 45.3 Corrosion of metal by reaction with sweat or saliva.

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Figure 45.4 Mechanism of mercury release from amalgam restorations.

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Table 45.1 Carcinogenic and toxic substances used in dentistry

Carcinogens Toxic substances
Formaldehyde
Cadmium
Beryllium
Methyl methacrylate
Formaldehyde
Mercury vapor
Metals:
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Lead
Mercury
Selenium
Silver

Table 45.2 Principal allergic reactions

Allergy Reaction type Mechanism
Type I Anaphylactic reactions—antibody (IgE) mediated Immunoglobulin antibodies (IgE) bind to receptors on mast cells.
Pharmacologically active compounds may be released.
Clinical effect may be respiratory system obstruction and cardiovascular collapse.
Type II Cytolytic or cytotoxic Immunoglobulins (IgM or IgG) bind to antigens on surface of cells and activate complement.
Activation may result in cytolysis, phagocytosis, and chemotactic reactions.
Type III Immune-complex Occur when complexes made of IgM and IgG antibodies accumulate in blood vessels or tissue and activate the complement system
Type IV Delayed-type hypersensitivity
(T-cell mediated)
Immune response is mediated by T cells, usually CD4+.
Cytokines are released, leading to macrophage activation and resulting in local damage.

Ig, immunoglobulin; IgE, immunoglobulin E; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IgM, immunoglobulin M.

Table 45.3 Type I and Type IV allergic reactions

Type I Type IV
Type of reaction IgE-mediated anaphylactic T-cell mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity
Characteristic Immediate/>

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Jan 1, 2015 | Posted by in Dental Materials | Comments Off on 45: Adverse effects of dental biomaterials
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