Oral Microbiota in Crevices Around Dental Implants: Profiling of Oral Biofilm

© The Author(s) 2015

Keiichi Sasaki, Osamu Suzuki and Nobuhiro Takahashi (eds.)Interface Oral Health Science 201410.1007/978-4-431-55192-8_4

4. Oral Microbiota in Crevices Around Dental Implants: Profiling of Oral Biofilm

Takuichi Sato , Yoshiaki Kawamura2, Keiko Yamaki3, Naoko Ishida1, 4, Lingyang Tian1, Yasuhisa Takeuchi4, Kazuhiro Hashimoto3, Yuki Abiko1, Gen Mayanagi1, 5, Jumpei Washio1, Junko Matsuyama6 and Nobuhiro Takahashi1
(1)

Division of Oral Ecology and Biochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
(2)

Department of Microbiology, Aichigakuin University School of Pharmacy, Nagoya 464-8650, Japan
(3)

Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
(4)

Division of Advanced Prosthetic Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
(5)

Research Unit for Interface Oral Health Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
(6)

Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8514, Japan
 
 
Takuichi Sato
Abstract
Large numbers of bacteria (>106/mm2) generally inhabit the surface of the oral cavity, particularly at the interface between teeth and gingiva, as an oral biofilm (microbiota). The establishment of anaerobic bacterial culture and molecular biological techniques has enabled us to isolate and detect various bacterial species from oral biofilm. It has been estimated that more than 600 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity. Nevertheless, the oral cavity is considered healthy when the oral microbiota is composed of indigenous bacteria. Numerous environmental changes in the oral cavity may lead to accumulation of dental caries-associated or periodontitis-associated bacteria, resulting in the initiation of dental caries or periodontitis, respectively. The environment in crevices around dental implants is considered similar to that in subgingival sulcus, such as neutral pH, anaerobiosis and rich nutrition (e.g., amino acids and peptides). The environment may be supportive of anaerobic growth of the bacteria in microbiota in crevices around implants, particularly at the interface between histocompatible artificial material and mucosal epithelium. The microbiota may trigger inflammation in the tissue around the implants. In this article, the current topics on the profiling of oral microbiota in crevices around implants are reviewed.
Keywords

BacteriaDental implantOral microbiotaProfiling

4.1 Introduction

Large numbers of bacteria (>106/mm2) generally inhabit the surface of the oral cavity, particularly at the interface between teeth and gingiva, as an oral biofilm (microbiota). The establishment of anaerobic bacterial culture and molecular biological techniques has enabled us to isolate and detect various bacterial species from oral biofilm. Currently, it has been estimated that more than 600 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity. Nevertheless, the oral cavity is considered healthy when the oral microbiota is composed of indigenous bacteria.

4.1.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Oral Biofilm

For the past several decades, with the development of techniques for culturing obligate anaerobes, in particular, adoption of the well-maintained anaerobic glove box system permitted the efficient recovery of obligate anaerobes from oral cavities and lesions. Importantly, all plates, media, buffer solutions and experimental instruments are kept in an anaerobic glove box for at least 24 h before use. To ensure strictly anaerobic conditions in the glove box, reduction of methyl viologen (−446 mV) is carefully monitored whenever experimental procedures are carried out. By adopting these exacting anaerobic techniques, the microbiota of oral biofilm has been shown to consist mainly of obligate anaerobes [15].
At present, the identification of obligate anaerobes is generally performed utilizing molecular biological techniques [612]. For instance, the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences are amplified by PCR, and partial sequences are then compared with those from the GenBank database using the BLAST search program through the National Center for Biotechnology Information website. Bacterial species are determined by percent sequence similarity (>97 %).

4.1.2 Oral Ecology: Environmental Factors Affecting Oral Biofilm

Numerous environmental changes in the oral cavity may lead to an accumulation of dental caries-associated or periodontitis-associated bacteria, resulting in the initiation of dental caries or periodontitis, respectively. The environment in crevices around dental implants is considered similar to that in subgingival sulcus, such as neutral pH, anaerobiosis and rich nutrition (e.g., amino acids and peptides). The environment may be supportive of anaerobic growth in the crevices around implants, particularly at the interface between histocompatible artificial material and mucosal epithelium. The microbiota may trigger inflammation in the tissue around the implants.
In this article, the current topics related to profiling of oral microbiota in crevices around implants are reviewed.

4.2 Nutritional and Environmental Aspects of Dental Implants

Nutrition for bacteria are supplied by the fluids around implants (PICF; peri-implant crevicular fluids) and teeth (GCF; gingival crevicular fluids), thus, fluid volume and contents, as well as pH, are considered to be critical to the health of dental implants.

4.2.1 Fluid Volume

Fluid volume with healthy implants was 2.17 ± 2.09 μL (range of Periotron 22.6–35.2 units) and that with healthy teeth was 3.49 ± 2.26 μL (36.3–56.6 units) (n = 7, mean age, 54.2 years) [13]. Similarly, Apse et al. [14] reported that fluid volumes were Periotron 57.1 ± 37.5 units and 54.8 ± 28.9 units, for healthy implants (n = 28) and healthy teeth (n = 19), respectively. There were no significant differences between healthy implants and healthy teeth, suggesting similar conditions between healthy implants and healthy teeth.

4.2.2 Fluid Constituents

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Sep 17, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on Oral Microbiota in Crevices Around Dental Implants: Profiling of Oral Biofilm
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