Periodontal Disease as a Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease

Fig. 20.1

Possible mechanisms by which periodontitis induced by bacterial infection exacerbates features of Alzheimer’s disease
Periodontal disease is the main cause of tooth loss; however, some reports have identified a correlation between tooth loss and AD. Tooth loss may be a risk factor for AD [28, 29]. Tooth loss reduces chewing function, which results in reduced cerebral blood flow and might lead to reduced cognitive function. However, tooth loss itself often does not accompany chronic inflammatory response, which suggests that the effects of tooth loss are not necessarily identical to those of periodontal disease. Oue et al. found that cognitive function was reduced by tooth removal in AAP transgenic mice, but there was no effect on the molecular pathology of AD [30]. On the other hand, when we induced periodontal disease in the same mouse, we found that intracerebral Aβ deposits increased and the intracerebral inflammatory response was enhanced in addition to the reduced cognitive function. Both periodontal disease and tooth loss reduce cognitive function, but their molecular mechanisms are thought to differ.

20.5 Conclusion

All organisms survive by consuming food; the chewing function is therefore very important. This function not only supports life but could be important to the maintenance of cognitive function. In this modern aging society, preventing periodontal disease and maintaining oral cavity function will become increasingly more important.
Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
References
1.
Chapple IL, Genco R. Working group 2 of joint EFPAAPw. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the Joint EFP/AAP workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40 Suppl 14:S106–12.PubMed
2.
Cullinan MP, Seymour GJ. Periodontal disease and systemic illness: will the evidence ever be enough? Periodontol 2000. 2013;62(1):271–86.PubMedCrossRef
3.
Linden GJ, Herzberg MC. Working group 4 of the joint EFPAAPw. Periodontitis and systemic diseases: a record of discussions of working group 4 of the Joint EFP/AAP workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases. J Periodontol. 2013;84(4 Suppl):S20–3.PubMed
4.
Reyes L, Herrera D, Kozarov E, Rolda S, Progulske-Fox A. Periodontal bacterial invasion and infection: contribution to atherosclerotic pathology. J Periodontol. 2013;84(4 Suppl):S30–50.PubMed
5.
Schenkein HA, Loos BG. Inflammatory mechanisms linking periodontal diseases to cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40 Suppl 14:S51–69.PubMed
6.
Riviere GR, Riviere KH, Smith KS. Molecular and immunological evidence of oral Treponema in the human brain and their association with Alzheimer’s disease. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17(2):113–8.PubMedCrossRef
7.
Kamer AR. Systemic inflammation and disease progression in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2010;4(14):1157. author reply −8.CrossRef
8.
Galea J, Brough D. The role of inflammation and interleukin-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease. J Inflamm Res. 2013;6:121–8.PubMedCentralPubMed
9.
Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Sep 17, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on Periodontal Disease as a Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes