Background: Maternal oral infection has been associated with preeclampsia. This study was done to explore this association.
Methods: Forty preeclamptic women and 40 normotensive pregnant women, both having oral infection, were subjected to microbiological assessment of subgingival plaque samples, samples of pericoronal pseudo-pocket and placental samples on different culture media and multiplex PCR. Gingival crevicular fluid, saliva and serum of both groups were examined for presence of TNF-α.
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding oral samples’ organisms, revealed by culture and PCR, or as regards to blood samples’ organisms, revealed by culture. The total number of anaerobes in blood samples and placental samples was higher in preeclamptic group than controls. PCR results of placental samples of the preeclampsia group showed significantly higher prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Eikenella corrodens and Prevotella intermedia than that of the control. There was a significant difference between the two groups as regards to the level of TNF-α by ELISA where the P -value was 0.021.
Conclusion: There was a relationship between chronic oral infection and preeclampsia. So, treatment of oral infection during pregnancy may represent a novel strategy to decrease the incidence of preeclampsia.
Key words: oral infection; preeclampsia; PCR