Immunomodulatory Effects of DPSC

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Selcuk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Konya, Turkey
 
Abstract
In addition to regenerative properties, the immunoregulatory properties of MSC have been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Because of the low expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, they are immunoprivileged cells. MSC can modulate the function of immune cells with different pathways of the immune response by means of direct cell-to-cell interactions and soluble factor secretions. They display immunosuppressive effects in a number of situations. In vitro, MSC inhibit cell proliferation of T cells, B-cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. The immunomodulatory effect of MSC is mediated by a nonspecific anti-proliferative action of these cells, and it is dependent on cell-to-cell contact or secreted soluble factors such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide (NO), HLA-G, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β (Nasef et al. 2008; Shi et al. 2011; De Miguel et al. 2012).

In addition to regenerative properties, the immunoregulatory properties of MSC have been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Because of the low expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, they are immunoprivileged cells. MSC can modulate the function of immune cells with different pathways of the immune response by means of direct cell-to-cell interactions and soluble factor secretions. They display immunosuppressive effects in a number of situations. In vitro, MSC inhibit cell proliferation of T cells, B-cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. The immunomodulatory effect of MSC is mediated by a nonspecific anti-proliferative action of these cells, and it is dependent on cell-to-cell contact or secreted soluble factors such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide (NO), HLA-G, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β (Nasef et al. 2008; Shi et al. 2011; De Miguel et al. 2012).
For the first time Pierdomenico et al. demonstrated that DPSC display an increased immunosuppressive activity when compared to bone marrow MSC (Pierdomenico et al. 2005). Although the regulatory mechanism has not been surrogated, Huang et al. showed that the implantation of DPSC derived from rhesus monkeys into the hippocampus of mice did not cause any immune rejection (Huang et al. 2008a, b). Later on Tomic et al. showed DPSC suppressed proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and that treatment with toll-like receptor 3 and 4 agonists augmented this suppressive potential (Tomic et al. 2011).
The HLA-G nonclassical MHC class I molecule was originally described in first-trimester trophoblasts at the fetal–maternal interface, and HLA-G5 is one of the major isoforms described in healthy tissues comprising trophoblast, thymus, cornea, erythroid, and endothelial precursors (Menier et al. 2010; Fainardi et al. 2011). I observed that dental pulp expresses HLA-G5 (data not shown). Deciduous dental pulp may well have an intrinsic mechanism in order to manage resorption events. This relates to the hypothesis mentioned earlier that SHED might have an immunoregulatory function to modulate resorption events. It would be valuable to see if as per the proposal of Rizzo et al. that the evaluation of sHLA-G production in IL-10-treated bone marrow-MSC cultures is a possible marker of immunoregulatory function (Rizzo et al. 2011), would valid for SHED as well.
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Nov 16, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on Immunomodulatory Effects of DPSC
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