Background and objectives: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) prevalence is higher in females than males (with ratio between 3:1 and 9:1). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multisystem disease and characterized with hormonal irregularity. We hypothesized that expression of various matrix metalloproteinases in PCOS may lead matrix loss in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fibrocartilage and cause TMD. Our study was performed to evaluate the incidence of TMD in patients with PCOS and compare with individuals who have not got any systemic disorder.
Methods: One-hundred voluntary female patients who had menstrual cycles were included. Patients were divided into two groups; PCOS group consisted of 50 females (mean age: 27.4 ± 6.3) who had previously diagnosed PCOS and control group was consisted of 50 healthy females (mean age: 26.1 ± 5.4). Comprehensive clinical TMJ and muscle evaluation of patients were performed by the same clinician. The pain of TMJ was also evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the results of two groups were statistically compared.
Results: Internal joint disorder incidence was 86% ( n : 43) in PCOS group and 24% ( n : 12) in control group and the difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.05). There was statistically significant difference between the VAS score of TMJ pain of two groups; as the VAS score was 2.9 in PCOS group, it was approximately 0 in control group. 72% ( n : 36) of the patients had muscular tenderness and pain in PCOS group, while; the ratio was 28% ( n : 14) control group and difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Maximal interincisal distance was 43.7 mm in PCOS group and 46.4 mm in control group and difference was not statistically significant ( p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Even a great number of heterogeneous conditions affect the TMJ, it can be concluded that TMD incidence is significantly higher in females who had PCOS when compared with healthy individuals. PCOS may be the one of the etiological factors for the female prominence of TMD.
Key words: polycystic ovary syndrome; temporomandibular disorder; temporomandibular joint pain