Immune defects and haematological defects and malignancies
HIV is a retrovirus transmitted sexually, via blood, or to the neonate, which has produced a global pandemic, especially affecting people in the developing world. There can be a range of orofacial complications seen in HIV disease (Figure 5.1), and in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – defined as a CD4 T lymphocyte count of less than 200 cells per microlitre (µl) of blood (Table 5.1).
|Viral infection||Herpesviruses (Figure 5.1), and HPV mainly
EBV is a herpesvirus that can cause hairy leukoplakia (Figures 5.6, 5.7) which mainly affects margins of the tongue and is a predictor of progression to full-blown AIDS. EBV may cause lymphoma
|Fungal infections||Candidosis (Figures 5.2–5.5)|
|Bacterial infection||Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (Figures 5.8, 5.9)|
|Virally-related neoplasms||Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma|