The biology of tooth movement
|Tooth movement||Force level
The application of a continuous force to a tooth results in remodelling of alveolar bone, reorganisation of the periodontal ligament and tooth movement. Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex process that involves the co-ordinated activity of many cell types and numerous chemical mediators. This chapter provides a summary of the mechanism of orthodontic tooth movement.
Effects of force on the periodontal ligament
The application of a continuous force to a tooth surface results in the development of areas of compression and tension within the periodontal ligament (Figure 35.1A). Tipping forces produce compressive loads that are greatest at the alveolar crest and root apex on diagonally opposite sides. Bodily movement results from even compressive loads along one side of the periodontal ligament.
The magnitude of the force delivered is important in determining the tissue response. Ideally, orthodontic forces should not exceed the capillary pressure within the periodontal ligament as this produces ischemia and tissue necrosis. The optimal force for tooth movement also depends on the type of tooth m/>