Efficacy of dental stem cell transplantation in the treatment of advanced periodontitis

Introduction: Periodontitis is the most common cause for tooth loss in adults and advanced types affect 10ā€“15% of adults worldwide. The attempts to save tooth and regenerate periodontal apparatus including cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone reach to the dental tissue derived stem cell therapy. Although there have been several periodontitis models suggested, apical involvement of tooth root is especially challenging to be regenerated and various dental stem cell therapy for the state has never been investigated.

Methods: In this study, three kinds of dental tissue derived adult stem cells (aDSCs) were obtained from the extracted immature molars of beagle dogs ( n = 8). The three cellular populations were confirmed as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by RT-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry using putative MSC markers. The multipotent differentiation potentials were shown under mineralization and adipogenesis induction conditions. Ex vivo expanded periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and periapical follicular stem cells (PAFSCs) were transplanted into the apical involvement defect. The efficacy of periodontal tissue regeneration was evaluated by histological, immunohistological and computered tomographical analysis among the three aDSCs. As for the lack of cementum specific markers, anti-human cementum protein 1 (rhCEMP1) antibody was fabricated and the aDSCs and the regenerated tissues were immunostained with the antibody.

Results and conclusion: As a result, the PDLSCs was the most favorable candidate for the clinical application among the three DSCs and can be used for treatment of advanced periodontitis where tooth removal was indicated in the clinical cases.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

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Jan 27, 2018 | Posted by in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Comments Off on Efficacy of dental stem cell transplantation in the treatment of advanced periodontitis
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