Fibro-osseous lesions are grouped together because histologically they show similar cellular and mineralization patterns. Despite the histologic ubiquity, their behaviors vary significantly. Because of the histologic similarity and the broad range of morbidity among them, it is important to be able to differentiate between them in the preliminary diagnostic process. The radiographic presentations along with the location of the bony changes are often extremely critical diagnostic features to help render a differential or working diagnosis in lieu of an automatic biopsy procedure. Therefore the unique and specific radiographic presentations may be one of the main criteria for preliminary diagnosis.
Fibro-osseous lesions share a common histology of benign fibrous connective tissue with varying degrees of mineralization such that histologic information alone is inadequate for a diagnosis. Variations in the location of the lesions, age and gender of the patient affect the behaviors that range from insidious to aggressive neoplasias, hamartomas and dyspalsias. Specific radiographic presentations become major findings in establishing a diagnosis.
Osseous dysplasia in the jaws have multiple presentations that range from periapical osseous dysplasia (POD), focal osseous dysplasia (Fo OD) to florid osseous dysplasia (Fl OD). The histologic patterns are similar but the location and degree of extension are the variables that differentiate these types.
Odontogenic neoplasms that fit into the category of benign fibro-osseous lesions include the ossifying fibroma and the benign cementoblastoma.
Monostotic and polyostitic fibrous dysplasias affect larger areas in the craniofacial complex. The size and extent of the lesions are the major determinants of their degrees of morbidity.