48 Thalassaemia and other blood dyscrasias

48

Thalassaemia and Other Blood Dyscrasias

Introduction

Dentists will often treat children who suffer from blood dyscrasias (Box 48.1). It is essential to have a knowledge of the commonly encountered conditions, their oral manifestations and the precautions required for their dental management.


Box 48.1 Classification of Blood Dyscrasias
I. Red blood cell disorders

a. Anaemia

i) iron deficiency
ii) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
iii) sickle cell
iv) thalassaemia
b. Polycythaemia
II. White blood cell disorders

a. Leucocytosis

i) infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)
ii) neoplasia
b. Leucopenia = neutropenia

i) congenital
ii) drug-induced
c. Leukaemias

i) acute lymphocytic (ALL)
ii) acute myeloid (AML)
iii) chronic
d. Lymphomas

i) Hodgkin’s
ii) Non-Hodgkin’s
iii) Burkitt’s

Anaemia

Anaemia is characterised by a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. It is usually related to a decrease in the number of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) or to an abnormality in the Hb contained within the RBCs.

Anaemia is not a disease but rather a symptom that may result from:

  • decreased production of RBCs (iron deficiency, pernicious anaemia, folate deficiency);
  • blood loss or increased rate of destruction of circulating RBCs that may cause haemolytic anaemia.

Haemolytic anaemias may result from many other causes including:

  • inherited abnormal haemoglobin (the haemoglobinopathies);
  • inherited abnormal structure or function of the erythrocy/>
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Jan 17, 2015 | Posted by in Pedodontics | Comments Off on 48 Thalassaemia and other blood dyscrasias
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