1. Which inflammatory mediator is produced by B-cells and T-cells?
2. Which is the predominant antibody in saliva?
3. Which cells are most involved in cell-mediated immunity?
4. Contact dermatitis is considered which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
5. Saliva has each of these protective mechanisms EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
6. Which cellular characteristic describes why gram-positive bacteria stain differently from how gram-negative bacteria stain?
7. An ideal antibiotic has the ability to inhibit a wide range of microorganisms, including normal flora. It will only act on the pathogen, with no harmful effect to the human host.
8. Which term BEST describes the ability of a microorganism to cause disease?
9. The cellular structure that is used to classify a bacterial species as gram-positive or gram-negative is the
10. All are typical bacterial cell shapes EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
11. The prefix strepto- designates bacteria that take on which type of arrangement?
12. Which is the MOST appropriate definition of a microorganism?
13. The key to Alexander Fleming’s recognition of penicillin as a tool for fighting bacterial infections was his observation that
14. The best definition of a virus is
15. You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it does not have a nucleus. From this observation, you can also conclude that it most likely
16. Structures that enable the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells are
17. Observation of microbial cell arrangement can be used to differentiate between streptococci and staphylococci. Observation of microbial cell shape can be used to differentiate between streptococci and staphylococci.
18. A patient is believed to be infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. These microorganisms have a waxy cell wall. Which of the following staining methods can verify this assumption?
19. Which type of microorganism is most likely to be found in the large intestine, where there is no exposure to oxygen?
20. Which type of microorganism generally uses aerobic metabolism when oxygen is available but can carry on fermentation in an anaerobic environment when necessary?
21. All increase the virulence of bacteria EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
22. Most human pathogens are classified as
23. Microbes that are classified as beta-hemolytic have the ability to
24. Which kind of relationship is exhibited by bacterial normal flora in a host’s large intestine?
25. Antibiotics may lead to septic shock if used to treat
26. A change in the location of normal flora may result in an opportunistic infection. Opportunistic infections contribute to nosocomial infections.
27. New viruses rarely cause disease, but if disease is produced, it is very severe. On the basis of this characteristic, the pathogenicity and virulence of a particular virus would be considered
28. Convalescence is the disease stage in which the number of microorganisms causing the disease and the intensity of signs and symptoms decrease. During convalescence, the host is beginning to feel better, but the pathogen causing the disease may still be spread to others.
29. Which condition is a symptom of a disease?
30. The virus that causes influenza is often transmitted over a distance less than 1 meter (m) by an unprotected sneeze. This is an example of what type of transmission?
31. The mucous membranes of the body are portals of entry for pathogens. Which mucous membranes are the MOST common site of entry for infectious agents?
32. Bacterial endospores or spores are a problem in sterilizing instruments and equipment because
33. Which object is a fomite?
34. Interferons nonspecifically inhibit the spread of which type of infections?
35. All are considered nonspecific body immune defenses EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
36. T-helper cells produce
37. Which is NOT a characteristic of adaptive immunity?
38. Antigens are
39. An antibiotic binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit. On the basis of this information, this antibiotic inhibits which of the following processes?
40. A viral infection may be treated with an antibiotic. Antivirals are difficult to develop because viruses use host cell machinery for their replication.
41. The BEST definition of sterilization is
42. Standard methods of sterilization are NOT effective in destruction of
43. A chemical agent that kills pathogenic microbes in general is a(n)
44. Proper filtration of air and liquids relies on which property?
45. Which BEST describes the selective toxicity characteristic of antimicrobials?
46. The mechanism of action for naturally occurring penicillin and its synthetic derivatives such as methicillin and ampicillin is the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. The spectrum of action for beta-lactam antibiotics equally includes gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
47. Erythromycin and tetracycline both act by
48. The total number of existing cases of a particular disease in a particular population within a given period is referred to as the
49. All are thought to be beneficial aspects of fever EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
50. Which reaction is characterized by degranulation of mast cells as a result of antigen–antibody complexes affixed to cell surfaces?
51. What is the etiologic agent of syphilis?