7. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the government agency charged with creating the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health. OSHA objectives include health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the government agency charged with assurance of safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education, and assistance.
|1. Hazardous Materials Standard (HAZMAT)||A. A regulation that prescribes safeguards to protect workers against health hazards related to occupationally acquired pathogens|
|2. Bloodborne Pathogens Standard||B. Implemented as part of the Social Security Act, this federal act set standards for coding health information and transmission of health information; patient, provider, employer, and payer identification; to protect security of patient data; and to protect the privacy of health information|
|3. Freedom of Information Act||C. A regulation that provides that any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information|
|4. Health Insurance Portability and Privacy Act (HIPAA)||D. Standard that applies to industries where injuries and illnesses from workplace exposure to hazardous materials are likely to occur; concerned with the distribution of material safety data sheets (MSDS) from the manufacturer to the employer|
9. OSHA bloodborne pathogen training and education on the hazards of body fluid and protective measures used to minimize occupation exposures is required at all of the following times EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
11. Universal precautions is the term for procedures developed to avoid contact with blood and blood-contaminated, potentially infectious body fluids. Engineering controls is the expanded concept that all bodily fluids except sweat are potentially infectious.
13. The dental hygienist may legally perform the duties or functions allowed in that particular state. If the individual is trained and licensed in another state where the practice act is more expansive, it is also permissible to perform those expanded functions in both states.
18. The dental treatment record is a comprehensive, ongoing file of assessment findings, treatment services rendered, outcomes, notations, and patient contacts. Entries in the dental record should be signed and dated.
22. The patient has an artificial heart valve requiring prophylactic premedication before the dental hygiene appointment and does not take the medication because of an upset stomach. The dental hygienist fails to ask if the patient has taken the premedication, and the patient develops infective endocarditis. The dental hygienist is guilty of
|1. Contract law||A. Violation of a societal rule|
|2. Tort law||B. Civil wrong|
|3. Criminal law||C. Legally binding agreement|
25. Scopes of practice for care vary by state. Licensed dental hygienists are not permitted to perform any procedure that can be legally delegated to a nonlicensed provider such as a dental assistant.
26. The dental hygienist accidentally uses latex gloves on a patient with a latex allergy, and the patient has a severe allergic reaction. Which action has the dental hygienist committed? (Select all that apply.)
27. Providing written evaluation of the extent of achievement of patient-centered goals is considered a legal risk management strategy. Failure to evaluate the outcome of care may be grounds for negligence.
30. The dental hygienist may refuse to provide a service requested by the patient if that service is in conflict with the standards of patient care. Although this decision conflicts with patient’s autonomy, it is within the dental hygienist’s autonomy and ethical responsibility.
31. Placing the welfare of a child suspected of child abuse over the autonomy of the parent is an example implementing the duty of prima facie. The welfare of the child is a stronger duty than preserving the parent’s right to autonomy.
33. If the husband of a patient contacts the dental office to request information regarding his wife’s health history so that he can accurately fill out insurance forms, it is permissible to share that information with the husband because the couple is married. Sharing patient information with family is a violation of confidentiality.
35. When a dental hygiene malpractice suit is a civil action, the level of proof required is called a preponderance of evidence. A preponderance of evidence requires that the jury or judge must be 51% certain of guilt or innocence.
37. The dentist proposes a full mouth series of radiographs as part of a patient’s treatment plan. The patient questions the dental hygienist about the need for and the safety of radiography. The hygienist educates the patient about dental radiography and answers all of the patient’s questions honestly. Which ethical principle is the hygienist upholding?
45. Patients must be informed of proposed treatment, risks, options, and nature of the disease or problem before the health care professional can proceed with treatment. Informed consent is mandated by the HIPAA.
49. The dental hygienist who participates in life-long learning, attends continuing education courses, and stays current with advances in the field of dentistry and dental hygiene is upholding which ethical principle?
50. Reciprocity is when a state grants licensure, usually without further testing, to an individual who is already licensed in another state. Individuals must apply for reciprocity in another state within the first 10 years after becoming first licensed.
58. An act of omission is a form of malpractice in which the practitioner commits an act that causes harm or injury to the patient. An act of commission is a form of malpractice in which the practitioner fails to act properly to prevent harm.
63. A patient has a toothache and schedules an appointment with a dentist. By making the appointment the patient gives consent for the dentist to make a diagnosis and offer treatment. This scenario exemplifies
67. A complete dental chart should include the patient’s identification data, consent forms, updated medical and dental histories, clinical assessment and diagnosis, treatment notes, radiographs, and copies of any correspondence with dental specialists or medical practitioners. Failure to keep accurate and complete patient records is considered malpractice.
72. The dental state practice act regulates the practice of dentistry and specifies the legal requirements for licensure because its primary purpose is to protect the public from incompetent health care providers.
77. Good communication with the patient is the best defense against malpractice claims because patients are less likely to initiate a lawsuit when they have a clear understanding of proposed treatment plans and any potential treatment complications.
81. Patient autonomy allows the patient to make decisions about the treatment received. If a patient chooses a treatment option that is consistent with standards of care, but not what the dental professional recommends, the professional does not have to provide the treatment.
83. A dental hygienist finds an area on the lateral border of the tongue that is suspicious for oral cancer. The hygienist tells the patient about it and suggests a treatment which she is not qualified to perform and which could potentially cause harm to the patient. This violates which ethical principle?
86. When a patient allows the lead apron to be put in place before radiographic examination, it is considered an expressed contract. When the patient signs the paperwork presented during a sedation consultation, it is considered an implied contract.