1. Which food provides the greatest amount of energy (kilocalories per gram [kcal/g]) per serving?
2. Each nonnutritive sweetener may be recommended to patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
3. Each statement about fatty acids is correct EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
4. Which are essential amino acids (EAAs)? (Select all that apply.)
5. For each of the numbered vitamins, select the most closely associated deficiency or excess.
||Deficiency or Excess
|_____ 1. Vitamin A
||A. Deficiency results in beriberi.
|_____ 2. Vitamin D
||B. Deficiency during pregnancy results in neural tube defects.
|_____ 3. Thiamin
||C. Deficiency results in weakened collagen, excessive bleeding, and poor wound healing.
|_____ 4. Niacin
||D. Excess may cause increased activity of osteoclasts.
|_____ 5. Folic acid
||E. Deficiency results in rickets.
|_____ 6. Vitamin B12
||F. Deficiency results in pellagra.
|_____ 7. Vitamin C
||G. Deficiency results in pernicious anemia.
6. Protein energy malnutrition is known as
7. Intrinsic factor in the stomach is needed for the absorption of
8. Chronic iron deficiency anemia is known as
9. Which fatty acid has the first double bond at the third carbon atom from the omega end?
10. Which snack creates the most cariogenic environment in the oral cavity?
11. How many minutes of acid exposure in the oral cavity will one peppermint candy disk provide?
12. Chewing gum used to reduce the risk of dental caries should contain which of the following cariostatic sugar alcohols?
13. Protein, casein, phosphorus, and calcium have anticariogenic properties. Milk is always a good beverage to recommend for patients with a high caries risk because of its anticariogenic properties.
14. Each is a source of cholesterol EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
15. Which foods constitute a complete protein? (Select all that apply.)
16. The basic unit of a protein is a glycerol. The distinguishing feature of a protein, compared with a carbohydrate or a fat, is the source of oxygen.
17. Which food exemplifies a vegan (strict vegetarian) diet? (Select all that apply.)
18. Each factor inhibits the absorption of calcium EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
19. The animal form of vitamin A is
20. Each vitamin can be synthesized by the body EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
21. Ham and roast beef are excellent sources of
22. Which vitamin aids the body in converting tryptophan to niacin?
23. Which vitamin is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin?
24. Which phrase BEST describes the process of anabolism?
25. For a manufacturer to label a food as containing “zero” trans fats, the maximum number of grams that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows the product to contain is
26. Energy intake is balanced by appetite (the desire to eat) and hunger (the physiologic desire to eat). The pituitary gland regulates hunger.
27. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the body. Good sources of linoleic acid include meat, fish, poultry, and eggs.
28. Order the steps of iron deficiency development, from first to last. Match each letter with its proper sequence number.
||A. Hemoglobin production falls.
||B. Iron stores diminish.
||C. Transport of iron decreases.
29. Serum ferritin test measures the first stage of iron deficiency. For this first stage, accurate measures may be made in infants, children, and adults with this diagnostic test.
30. Which laboratory finding reflects the most cardioprotective lipoprotein profile?