Symmetry is defined as correspondence in size, shape and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a median plane. The facial midline is usually taken as a line passing through soft tissue nasion and the midpoint of the upper lip. A degree of facial asymmetry is normal and acceptable across this line. It can be caused by an asymmetry in the facial skeleton and/or soft tissue drape. The point at which an asymmetry becomes unacceptable is when an individual begins to have aesthetic concerns and/or functional limitations. There is individual variation regarding when this point is reached. Although asymmetries can occur at many levels of the face, this chapter will mainly focus on developmental asymmetries affecting the mandible and maxilla. Table 25.1 provides a classification of asymmetries.
Hemimandibular elongation and hyperplasia
Hemimandibular elongation is a developmental deformity, of unknown aetiology that usually affects one side of the mandible and presents with a progressively increasing transverse displacement of the chin that often becomes apparent during or after the adolescent growth spurt (Figure 25.1A). The mandibular dentition follows the skeletal displacement, which predisposes to buccal crossbite and centreline displacement away from the affected side and a scissor bite on the affected side. Since there is a minimal vertical component to the abnormal growth pattern, there is typically no over-eruption of the maxillary dentition on the affected side.
|Developmental||Hemimandibular elongation and hyperplasia