10: Risk and Periodontal Diseases


Risk and periodontal diseases

Figure 10.1 Pack years of cigarette smoking and clinical attachment loss.



Figure 10.2 Periodontal disease and glycaemic control: cause or effect?



Figure 10.3 Interaction of periodontal microflora, the inflammatory response and risk factors.



Table 10.1 Levels of evidence for risk determinants in chronic diseases and characteristics of these studies which make the factors more convincing, and not likely to be spurious associations.


Type of study Study characteristics
Cross-sectional or case–control studies Confounding factors are eliminated or adjusted for in the analysis
Longitudinal epidemiological studies (establish temporality and evidence for effects in causal pathway) Dose–response effects
Mechanism studies Study results are consistent among various independent studies
Intervention studies Effects are clinically meaningful
Relationship is biologically plausible


Table 10.2 Systemic risk determinants for periodontal disease.


Systemic risk factors Systemic risk indicators
Smoking Low dietary calcium
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 Postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteopenia
Race Visceral obesity
Male gender
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil) function
Socioeconomic status (low educational level)
Acquired systemic infections (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV))
Severe malnutrition (cancrum oris)
Stress and inadequate coping


Table 10.3 Modification of risk factors for periodontal disease.


Jan 14, 2015 | Posted by in Periodontics | Comments Off on 10: Risk and Periodontal Diseases
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