Residents’ journal review

Relationship between biotype and bone morphology

Ghassemian M, Lajolo C, Semeraro V, Giuliani M, Verdugo F, Pirronti T, et al. Relationship between biotype and bone morphology in the lower anterior mandible: an observational study. J Periodontol 2016;87:680-9

To achieve the most successful results after restorative, periodontal, and orthodontic treatment, it is essential to understand maxillofacial bone anatomy. The purposes of this study were to describe alveolar and basal osseous dimensions of the anterior mandible in healthy subjects and to evaluate the potential correlations with biotype using tomographic methods. The authors also aimed to evaluate the influence of the biotype on the thickness of cortical, alveolar, and basal bones. One hundred healthy patients requiring surgery in the posterior mandible were grouped into 50 patients with thin biotype (group 1) and 50 patients with thick biotype (group 2). Clinical data were collected according to Little’s irregularity index for anterior crowding, molar and canine class relationships, previous orthodontic treatment, gingival recession, and keratinized gingiva for the six lower anterior teeth. Computerized tomography was used to measure parameters such as distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone crest, tooth torque, labial cortical bone thickness, and biotype 5 and 10 mm apical to the tooth apex. There was no statistical difference between biotypes; yet tooth torque, age, and smoking habit were often predictors of a reduction in biotype. Previous orthodontic treatment was a protective factor against developing bone loss greater than 5 mm, and male sex was frequently a predictor of positive changes in biotype. The authors concluded that biotype does not play a fundamental role in influencing alveolar biotype, whereas variables such as tooth torque, sex, age, and smoking habit do influence it. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to better understand the extent that these variables may influence alveolar biotype.

Reviewed by Alex Schwab

Orofacial myofunctional treatment in children with anterior open bite

Van Dyck C, Dekeyser A, Vantricht E, Manders E, Goeleven A, Fieuws S, et al. The effect of orofacial myofunctional treatment in children with anterior open bite and tongue dysfunction: a pilot study. Eur J Orthod 2016;38:227-34

The authors of this pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) on the tongue behavior of subjects with anterior open bites and a visceral swallowing pattern. Twenty-two children (11 boys, 11 girls) between the ages of 7.1 and 10.6 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: OMT patients and non-OMT patients. The subjects were randomized based on transverse crossbite, and each group consisted of a subgroup requiring expansion and a subgroup that did not need expansion. Myofunctional training was carried out, and functional tongue characteristics such as tongue posture at rest, swallowing pattern, and tongue positions during articulation of /s,l,n,d,t/ sounds were evaluated by a speech pathologist. Maximum tongue elevation strength was measured at baseline, after treatment, and at 6 months posttreatment using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument system. The results showed that OMT has a positive effect on tongue behavior, since it increased tongue elevation strength and led to an increase of physiological resting tongue posture and an improvement of tongue position during swallowing of solid food. OMT did not improve articulation, and the combined effect of OMT and expansion was deemed nonsignificant. An exploratory design was selected to stimulate further research about OMT and its role in orthodontics. Future research may entail determining the ideal age to begin correcting aberrant tongue function and establishing a well-defined treatment protocol for orofacial dysfunction as an adjunct to orthodontic treatment.

Reviewed by Jason Meinhardt

Orofacial myofunctional treatment in children with anterior open bite

Van Dyck C, Dekeyser A, Vantricht E, Manders E, Goeleven A, Fieuws S, et al. The effect of orofacial myofunctional treatment in children with anterior open bite and tongue dysfunction: a pilot study. Eur J Orthod 2016;38:227-34

The authors of this pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) on the tongue behavior of subjects with anterior open bites and a visceral swallowing pattern. Twenty-two children (11 boys, 11 girls) between the ages of 7.1 and 10.6 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: OMT patients and non-OMT patients. The subjects were randomized based on transverse crossbite, and each group consisted of a subgroup requiring expansion and a subgroup that did not need expansion. Myofunctional training was carried out, and functional tongue characteristics such as tongue posture at rest, swallowing pattern, and tongue positions during articulation of /s,l,n,d,t/ sounds were evaluated by a speech pathologist. Maximum tongue elevation strength was measured at baseline, after treatment, and at 6 months posttreatment using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument system. The results showed that OMT has a positive effect on tongue behavior, since it increased tongue elevation strength and led to an increase of physiological resting tongue posture and an improvement of tongue position during swallowing of solid food. OMT did not improve articulation, and the combined effect of OMT and expansion was deemed nonsignificant. An exploratory design was selected to stimulate further research about OMT and its role in orthodontics. Future research may entail determining the ideal age to begin correcting aberrant tongue function and establishing a well-defined treatment protocol for orofacial dysfunction as an adjunct to orthodontic treatment.

Reviewed by Jason Meinhardt

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Apr 4, 2017 | Posted by in Orthodontics | Comments Off on Residents’ journal review
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