It is evident that molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) occurs worldwide. However, prevalence data vary widely in the literature. In the present chapter, an overview of the international data on the prevalence of the disease is first presented, followed by a more detailed description of its regionally varying prevalence in Germany.

4.1 International data

In a recently published review that included 99 studies from 43 countries with 113,144 patients, an average global prevalence of MIH of 13.1% (11.7–14.3%) was calculated1,2 (Fig 4-1). In this context, major differences are apparent both between regions in different parts of the world (eg, South America and South Asia) and between different countries. In terms of countries, the spectrum ranges from 1.6% in India to 40.2% in Brazil.3,4 Thereby, studies using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria for diagnosing the disease pattern were found to have a significantly higher prevalence than those using other criteria (eg, index of developmental defects of dental enamel [DDE]).

Fig 4-1 Global MIH prevalence (source: Schwendicke et al1; courtesy of Elsevier). a) Regional level. b) Mean number of prevalent cases in 2015. c) Mean number of incident cases in 2016 on country level.

A review published approximately at the same time5 with a slightly different calculation concept and 70 included studies determined a pooled international prevalence of 14.2%. The prevalence data for the countries ranged from 0.54 to 40.2%.3 The authors also identified the highest percentages for the presence of the disease in South America.

Both reviews failed to find a significant difference between male and female patients.

The number of people affected worldwide was estimated at 878 million in 2015.1 The highest prevalence was found in South and East Asia and North America. Due to their large populations, India, China, and the USA were the main contributors to the global burden of MIH.1,2 The number of new cases for 2016 was calculated with 17.5 (15.8–19.4) million. South and Southeast Asia (India, Indonesia, Pakistan), but also African countries, were again the decisive contributors.1,2

In addition to the prevalence figures alone, it is still of interest which severity levels of MIH are present in the individual populations and the estimated need for treatment. It can be assumed that patients with small opacities and no pain symptoms are likely to have a lesser need for treatment than those with hypersensitivity and large enamel breakdowns. Data are also available on this. For example, the proportion of affected individuals suffering from pain, hypersensitivities, or posteruptive breakdowns is estimated to be 27.4% (23.5–31.7%).1,2

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Aug 22, 2023 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on Prevalence

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