Online only abstracts

Cranial base foramen location accuracy and reliability in cone-beam computerized tomography

Manuel O. Lagravère, Jillian M. Gordon, Carlos Flores-Mir, Jason Carey, Giseon Heo, and Paul W. Major. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139:e203-e210

I ntroduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy in locating several different foramina in the cranial base by using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images for future use in establishing reference coordinate systems. Methods: CBCT images from 10 dry skulls were taken with and without the foramina ovale, spinosum, and rotundum, and the hypoglossal canals filled with radiopaque gutta-percha (gold standard). Three evaluators identified the foramen landmarks in the CBCT images without gutta-percha. Mean differences and main researcher intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability were measured by using intraclass correlation coefficients for all landmark coordinates. Descriptive statistics were calculated with respect to the landmark coordinates and distances to the reference points. Results: Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability values for the x-, y-, and z-coordinates for all landmarks were greater than 0.9 with the exception of 4 (of 72) points that still had acceptable interexaminer reliability (>0.75). Mean measurement error differences obtained in the principal investigator’s trials were primarily less than 0.5 mm. When comparing the mean distance differences of the same examiner and between the 3 examiners with the gold standard, the highest difference obtained was 1.3 mm. Conclusions: Foramina spinosum, ovale, and rotundum, and the hypoglossal canal all provided high intraexaminer reliability and accuracy, and can be considered acceptable landmarks to use in establishing reference coordinate systems for future 3-dimensional superimposition analysis.

Permutation method for evaluating topographic craniofacial correlations

Demetrios J. Halazonetis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139:e211-e217

I ntroduction: Correlations between cephalometric measurements are frequently assumed to represent biologic associations. However, a significant portion of such correlations might arise from purely geometric dependencies, when measurements share common landmarks. Analytic calculation of this topographic component is difficult. The purpose of this study was to propose a permutation method for evaluating the topographic component of cephalometric correlations. Methods: The method consisted of creating a virtual sample of cephalometric tracings (landmark configurations) from the original biologic sample under investigation. Each novel landmark configuration was constructed by assigning coordinates to the cephalometric points; the coordinates of each point were taken randomly from the original sample, each from a potentially different subject. Correlation analysis was performed separately on both samples and the results compared. Biologic meaning was ascribed only when there was a significant difference in correlation values between the samples. Confidence intervals for assessing statistical significance were calculated by using a randomization approach. The method was tested on a sample of 170 radiographs to evaluate the correlation between cranial base angle (NSBa) and angles SNA and SNB, as well as between ANB angle and the Wits appraisal. Results: No biologic association was found between ANB and Wits, or between NSBa and SNA. The biologic correlation between NSBa and SNB was statistically significant but low (r 2 = 12%). Conclusions: Topographic associations between cephalometric measurements are ubiquitous and difficult to assess. The proposed method enables evaluation of their relative strength without the need for analytic solutions.

Permutation method for evaluating topographic craniofacial correlations

Demetrios J. Halazonetis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139:e211-e217

I ntroduction: Correlations between cephalometric measurements are frequently assumed to represent biologic associations. However, a significant portion of such correlations might arise from purely geometric dependencies, when measurements share common landmarks. Analytic calculation of this topographic component is difficult. The purpose of this study was to propose a permutation method for evaluating the topographic component of cephalometric correlations. Methods: The method consisted of creating a virtual sample of cephalometric tracings (landmark configurations) from the original biologic sample under investigation. Each novel landmark configuration was constructed by assigning coordinates to the cephalometric points; the coordinates of each point were taken randomly from the original sample, each from a potentially different subject. Correlation analysis was performed separately on both samples and the results compared. Biologic meaning was ascribed only when there was a significant difference in correlation values between the samples. Confidence intervals for assessing statistical significance were calculated by using a randomization approach. The method was tested on a sample of 170 radiographs to evaluate the correlation between cranial base angle (NSBa) and angles SNA and SNB, as well as between ANB angle and the Wits appraisal. Results: No biologic association was found between ANB and Wits, or between NSBa and SNA. The biologic correlation between NSBa and SNB was statistically significant but low (r 2 = 12%). Conclusions: Topographic associations between cephalometric measurements are ubiquitous and difficult to assess. The proposed method enables evaluation of their relative strength without the need for analytic solutions.

Mechanical strain at alveolar bone and circummaxillary sutures during acute rapid palatal expansion

Zongyang Sun, Sarah Hueni, Boon Ching Tee, and Hyeonseon Kim. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139:e219-e228

I ntroduction: Palatal expansion can potentially affect alveolar bone and circummaxillary sutures. In this study, we characterized their mechanical strain during acute expansion. Methods: Eight 3- and 6-month-old fresh pig heads received acute palatal expansion with hyrax expanders. Strain gauges were used to measure strain at the buccal alveolar bone of anchor and adjacent nonanchor teeth, and at maxillary-premaxillary, maxillary-zygomatic, and zygomatic-temporal sutures during expansion. Intermolar width changes were measured from dental casts. Results: Intermolar width increased less than expander activation, and the midpalatal sutures were only opened slightly. Alveolar bone strain increased linearly with expander activation and decayed by 20% to 30% during postactivation intervals. Compressive strain at anchor-tooth alveolar bone locations was directed occlusally and apically, related to tooth tipping, and significantly higher than that at nonanchor tooth locations. With expander activation, suture strains increased monotonically and tended to plateau. Suture strain magnitude was generally similar to physiologic (masticatory) strains reported in the literature. The dominant strain polarity was compression at the maxillary-zygomatic and zygomatic-temporal sutures, but there was tension at the maxillary-premaxillary suture. Conclusions: In these pigs, palatal expansion can cause significant occlusal-apical compression at buccal alveolar bone and physiologic-level strains at circummaxillary sutures.

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Apr 13, 2017 | Posted by in Orthodontics | Comments Off on Online only abstracts
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