Lingual orthodontics

The introductory chapter discusses the increasing awareness and need for orthodontic treatment among all age groups and the desirability of inconspicuous tooth alignment with an occlusion correction system that meets these needs. Chapter 2 is an overview of the various lingual orthodontic appliance systems, including the recently available 100% customized invisible fixed appliance system. Chapter 3 introduces the reader to the “STb light lingual system,” which uses the small, smooth-surfaced Scuzzo-Takemoto bracket (STb). The authors claim that the low-friction STb, in association with extralight wires, is paving the way for a revolution in orthodontics. Using high-precision end-gauges, the authors tested slot sizes of a number of brackets available on the market. Shown in chapter 4 are the remarkable differences between the brackets supplied by various manufacturers. The results of the study indicated that the STb system is precise and can therefore be recommended for clinical use. Chapter 5 deals with biomechanical considerations in light-wire lingual orthodontics. Discussed are wire cross-section and stiffness, factors affecting the magnitude of the general force, factors affecting torque control, avoiding binding, and low-friction ligation. Chapter 6 considers the effect of force level on orthodontic tooth movement and focuses on the tissue reactions of the structures loaded by the orthodontic appliance, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and tooth roots. The reaction of the cellular and extracellular elements and the mechanical behavior of each structure, controlled by both local and systemic factors, are discussed. A short chapter describes new diagnostic concepts in orthodontic treatment with the STb low-friction system. Discussed are mandibular vs maxillary incisor systems, and orthodontic analysis based on the maxillary incisor position. Described in chapter 8 is the frictional force produced by the STb when bonded to a simulated dental arch. Frictional resistances of various bracket-wire-ligation combinations were compared. In chapter 9, “Biomechanics and comparative biomechanics,” the authors describe and evaluate the different forces applied to the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth by the lingual and labial techniques in the 3 planes of space (vertical, horizontal, and sagittal).

A substantial chapter, the tenth, is devoted to “Improvements in laboratory procedures.” This section describes in detail the process of setup preparation, bracket placement, ideal arch bending, and construction of transfer trays that deliver the orthodontic prescription to the appliance, including the addition of any overcorrections. Incorporated and described in chapter 11, “Extraction mechanics and anchorage control,” are the principles of extraction mechanics, diagnosis, and selection of teeth for extraction in Class I, Class II, and Class III patients, extraction and periodontal tissue, unusual extractions, anchorages (vertical and horizontal), treatment mechanics in both dental arches, comparisons between loop mechanics and sliding mechanics, and detailing. Chapter 12 describes and illustrates a series of STb extraction cases. STb nonextraction mechanics are further described and illustrated in chapter 13. This is followed by an illustrated series of treated STb nonextraction patients. In the 15th chapter, the authors focus on esthetic treatments for today’s demanding patients. They elaborate on the changing dynamics of the doctor-patient relationship, and the STb “Social 6” light lingual system, which was developed for esthetically demanding patients who need major to moderate corrections in the anterior arch segments. The Social 6 light lingual system gives the orthodontist an efficient treatment modality with maximum control of the treatment process. The lingual straight-wire method described in chapter 16 was developed by the editors in 1995. The procedure eliminates the earlier disadvantages of complicated wire bending and prolonged chair-side time. Shown are 2 case reports. Described in the 17th and final chapter, “KommonBase: new generation bracket bonding in clinical orthodontics,” is the use of miniature lingual brackets, flowable resin, and resin-reinforced glass ionomer glass cement. It is claimed to be a precise bonding system.

The editors, with 7 authors and 8 contributors, have produced a most distinguished text on lingual orthodontics. It is by no means a simple “how to” book; rather, it is a well-documented, well-illustrated scientific text, well suited for any orthodontist interested in lingual orthodontic treatment.

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Apr 13, 2017 | Posted by in Orthodontics | Comments Off on Lingual orthodontics
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