Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

R. Reti, D. Findlay (eds.)Oral Board Review for Oral and Maxillofacial

23. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Zain Manji1   and Jerri D. Hines2

Bramalea Oral Surgery, William Osler Health System, Department of Surgery, Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Brampton, ON, Canada

Ambiance Surgical Arts Center, Miami, FL, USA

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)SeroconversionHighly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumoniaKaposi’s sarcomaProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy


  • HIV is an RNA retrovirus that infects CD4 cells that causes varying levels of immunosuppression with the possible progression to AIDS.

  • AIDS – the result of progressive HIV infection in which a person has a weakened immune system and meets specific diagnostic criteria (see below).

  • HIV is an infectious disease transmissible by sexual contact, exposure to infected blood/organ donations, perinatally, or via IV drug abuse.

  • For several years, HIV-infected patients can remain clinically asymptomatic; however, during this phase the CD4 count gradually decreases complicated with development of opportunistic infections, autoimmune conditions, and neoplasms.

  • HIV infection can manifest itself along a continuum as it may progress from initial infection to latency to progression to AIDS.

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), a patient has AIDS in the presence of HIV in combination with:

    1. 1.

      A CD4+ T-cell count of 200 cells/μL or less.

    2. 2.

      A CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of 15% or less.

    3. 3.

      One or more of AIDS-defining illnesses (Table 23.1).

Table 23.1

AIDS defining illnesses

Burkitt’s lymphoma

Candidiasis of bronchi, esophagus, trachea, or lungs


Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal for longer than 1 month

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Encephalopathy (HIV-related)

Herpes simplex


Invasive cervical cancer

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)


Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Salmonella septicemia

Toxoplasmosis of the brain

Wasting syndrome

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Jul 23, 2021 | Posted by in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Comments Off on Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
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