Objectives : The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of implant coatings with the gylcosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan (Hya) with regard to their influence on the early peri-implant bone formation.
Materials and Methods : Thirty-six screw-type dental implants with 3 different surface states were inserted in the mandible of minipigs. The tested surfaces were: grit-blasted and acid-etched titanium (Ti, n = 12), Ti coated with CS ( n = 12), Ti coated with Hya ( n = 12). After healing periods of 4 and 8 weeks the samples were histomorphologically analyzed. Bone implant contact (BIC), osteoid implant contact (OIC) as well as bone volume density (BVD) and osteoid volume density (OVD) were measured.
Results : All implants were osseointegrated at the time of sacrifice. CS or Hya coated implants showed an early onset maturation of newly formed bone. After 4 weeks, Hya coated implants showed a significantly lower BIC compared to Ti (37% vs. 44% p = 0.012). The OIC of Hya was significantly lower compared to CS after 8 weeks (0.4% vs. 0.9% p = 0.012). After 8 weeks the BVD values for CS (30% p = 0.029) and Hya (32% p = 0.015) surfaces were significantly increased compared to uncoated Ti surfaces (22%). There were no significant differences in OVD within the experimental groups.
Conclusion : Coatings with CS or Hya can be used to influence early peri-implant bone formation. The histological results showed for both coatings a significant higher bone volume density compared to the uncoated reference surface after 8 weeks.
Clinical relevance : An improved osseous integration of dental implants in compromized bone areas is of particular interest. The surface coating with organic components of the extracellular matrix is a promising opportunity to promote early osseointegration.