Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in the jaw of the Berlin minipig

Aim: Incidence of osteoporosis in western countries is increasing due to demographic development. Osteoporosis is a potential risk factor for dental implants. There are different alternatives to induce osteoporosis in animals. Oral administration of glucocorticoids is one possible approach. Aim of this study was to verify osteoporosis in the jaw of minipigs after oral administration of glucocorticoids.

Materials and methods: Calcium reduced diet was applied to 27 female Berlin minipigs. Initially, 1 mg prednisolon per kg body weight was administered for 2 months. After 2 months, prednisolon dosage was reduced to 0.5 mg prednisolon per kg body weight. At the beginning and after 6 months of therapy, quantitative computer tomography of the maxilla, the mandible and the lumbal vertebrae were performed. Vertebrae served as reference to verify osteoporosis. Additionally, blood levels of ostase, ß-crosslaps, vitamin D and osteocalcin were examined at both points of time.

Results: After 6 month, a rarefied trabecular meshwork could be observed in both lumbal vertebrae and the jaw region. Hounsfield unit values (HU) decreased from 434 HU to 331 HU in the maxilla and from 569 HU to 450 HU in the mandible. In the lumbal vertebra region a decrease from 374 HU to 349 HU could be observed. Blood levels of the examined parameters equally decreased (ostase: −58.02 U/l; ß-crosslaps: −0.52 ng/ml; vitamin D: −33.87 pg/ml; osteocalcin: −99.16 ng/ml).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the oral administration of glucocorticoids induces an osteoporotic alteration in lumbal vertebrae, maxillary and mandibular bone.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

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Jan 27, 2018 | Posted by in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Comments Off on Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in the jaw of the Berlin minipig
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