Background and objectives: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has a complex management and treatment, characterized by bone cell and marrow death in a particular area. This pathology can affect any part of any bone, being the most common cause in adult of jaw affectation the bisphosphonates therapy or secondary to radiotherapy of head and neck. There is a large list of etiologic factors, but there is not a consensus about its pathophysiology. Tissue engineering is a clinical research via which tries to recreate tissues and organs as similar as possible to the original ones. The main objective of tissue engineering is to repair tissue losses through any system that allows natural bone reconstruction and avoiding an autologous free flap transfer.
Methods: We present the result of 5 clinical cases of ONJ treated by tissue therapy in which we implanted a construct of mononuclear cells with tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix.
Conclusion: Mesenchymal cells seems to be the best candidate in cell therapy to regenerate skeletal tissue due to its easy isolation, expansion and multipotentiality. Mesenchymal cells are able to differentiate to osteoblasic cell when they are submitted to optimal microenvironment factors.
Key words: osteonecrosis; tissue engineering