Appendix: Suggested Reading

Appendix
Suggested Reading

HISTORY-TAKING AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION RESOURCES

Bickley LS, Szilagyi PG. Bates’ guide to physical examination and history taking. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2009.

LeBlond R, Brown D, DeGowin R. DeGowin’s diagnostic examination, 9th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2008.

LOCAL ANESTHETICS RESOURCES

Adewumi A, Hall M, Guelmann M, Riley J. The incidence of adverse reactions following 4% septocaine (articane) in children. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30(5):424–428.

Akerman B, Hellberg IB, Trossvik C. Primary evaluation of the local anaesthetic properties of the amino amide agent ropivacaine (LEA 103) Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1988;32:571–578.

Becker DE, Reed KL. Essentials of local anesthetic pharmacology. Anesth Prog 2006;53:98–109.

El-Sharrawy E, Yagiela JA. Anesthetic efficacy of different ropivacaine concentrations for inferior alveolar nerve block. Anesth Prog. 2006;53(1):3–7.

Ernberg M, Kopp S. Ropivicaine for dental anesthesia: a dose-finding study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60(9):1004–1010.

Hornke I, Eckert HG, Rupp W. Pharnakokinetik und metabolismus von articain nach intramuskularer injektion am mannlichen probanden. Dtsch Z Mund Kiefer Gesichts Chir 1984;8:67–71.

Kennedy M, Reader A, Beck M, et al. An evaluation of the anesthetic efficacy of .5% ropivacaine with 1 to 200,000 epinephrine in human maxillary local anesthesia infiltration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 2001;91:406–412.

Kennedy M, Reader A, Beck M, Weaver J. Anesthetic efficacy of ropivacaine in maxillary anterior infiltration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;91:406–412.

Kirch W, Kitteringham N, Lambers G, et al. Die klinische pharmakokinetik von articain nach intraoraler und intramuskularer application. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 1983;93:713–719.

Malamed SF. Handbook of local anesthesia. 6th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2012.

Meechan JG. A comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine with epinephrine for intraligamentary anesthesia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93:469–473.

Meechan JG. Ropivacaine is equivalent to bupivacaine in maxillary infiltrations. Evidence-Based Dentistry 2002;3:67–68.

Oertel R, Ebert U, Rahn R, Kirch W. Clinical pharmacokinetics of articaine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997;33(6):418–420.

Suurkula M, Blomberg S, Sjovall J, Edvardsson N. Central nervous and cardiovascular effects of IV infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo in volunteers. Br J Anaesth. 1997;78:507–514.

US FDA. www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm250264.htm.

ANALGESICS RESOURCES

Abramowicz M. (Editor). Drug interactions. The Medical Letter. 1999;41:61–62.

Abramowicz M., editor. Drugs for pain: treatment guidelines from The Medical Letter. The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics. 2007;5:23–32.

American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting: An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology 2012;116(2):248–273.

Becker DE. Pain Management: Part 1: Managing Acute and Postoperative Dental Pain. Anesth Prog. 2010;57(2):67–79.

Benson GD, Koff RS, Tolman KG. The therapeutic use of acetaminophen in patients with liver disease. American Journal of Therapeutics 2005;12(2):133–141.

Center for Disease Control. Medication exposures during pregnancy and breast-feeding: Frequently Asked Questions. www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/meds/faqs.htm.

Cryer B, Berlin RG, Cooper SA, Hsu C, Wason S. Double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study of ibuprofen effects on thromboxane B2 concentrations in aspirin-treated healthy adult volunteers. Clin Ther. 2005;27:185–191.

Dart RC, Erdman AR, Olson KR, et al. Acetaminophen poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006;44(1):1–18.

Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S. Drug-drug interactions between antithrombotic medications and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. CMAJ. 2007;177:347–351.

Farrell SE. Toxicity, Acetaminophen. eMedicine Journal. January 3, 2006. Available at www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic819.htm.

Gislason GH, Rasmussen JN, Abildstrom SZ, et al. Increased mortality and cardiovascular morbidity associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:141–149.

Harle DG, Baldo BA, Coroneos NJ, Fisher MM. Anaphylaxis following administration of papaveretum. Case report: implication of IgE antibodies that react with morphine and codeine, and identification of an allergenic determinant. Anesthesiology. 1980;71:489–494.

Herrlin K, Segerdhal M, Gustafsson LL, Kalso E. Methadone, ciprofloxacin, and adverse drug reactions. Lancet 2000;356:2069–2070.

Hyllested M, Jones S, Pedersen JL, Kehlet H. Comparative effect of paracetamol, NSAIDs or their combination in postoperative pain management: a qualitative review. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88:199–214.

Juhl, GI, Norholt, SE, Tonnesen, E, Hiesse-Provost, O, Jensen, TS. Analgesic efficacy and safety of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) administered as a 2g starting dose following third molar surgery. European Journal of Pain; 2006;10(4):371–377.

Kimmey MB. Cardioprotective effects and gastrointestinal risks of aspirin: maintaining the delicate balance. Am J Med. 2004;117:72s–78s.

Larson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, et al. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology 2005;42(6):1364–1372.

Lichtor JL, Schwartz AJ, Abouleish A, et al. Practice guidelines for acute pain management in the perioperative setting: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology. 2012;116(2):248–273.

MacDonald TM, Wei L. Effect of ibuprofen on cardioprotective effect of aspirin. Lancet. 2003;361:573–574.

Moore PA, Crout RJ, Jackson DL, et al. Tramadol hydrochloride: analgesic efficacy compared with codeine, aspirin with codeine, and placebo after dental extraction. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;38:554–560.

Patel TN, Goldberg KC. Use of aspirin and ibuprofen compared with aspirin alone and the risk of myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:852–856.

Pergolizzi, JV, Raffa, RB, Tallarida, R, Taylor, R, Labhsetwar, SA. Continuous multimechanistic postoperative analgesia: A rationale for transitioning from intravenous acetaminophen and opioids to oral formulations. Pain Practice 2011;12(2):159–173.

Pinto A, Farrar JT, Hersh EV. Prescribing NSAIDs to patients on SSRIs: possible adverse drug interaction of importance to dental practitioners. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2009;30:142–151, quiz: 152, 154.

Prasanna N, Subbarao CV, Gutmann JL. The efficacy of pre-operative oral medication of lornoxicam and diclofenac potassium on the success of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. Int Endod J. Apr 2011;44(4):330–6.

Shapiro LE, Shear NH. Drug interactions: Proteins, pumps, and P450s. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:467–484.

Smilkstein MJ, Knapp GL, Kulig KW, Rumack BH. Efficacy of oral N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of acetaminophen overdose. Analysis of the national multicenter study (1976 to 1985). 1988;319(24):1557–1562.

Smith HS. Opioid metabolism. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84:613–624.

US FDA. Questions and Answers: FDA Regulatory Actions for the COX-2 Selective (includes Bextra, Celebrex, and Vioxx) and Non-Selective Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/cox2.

US FDA. www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm310870.htm.

Van Dyke T, Litkowski LJ, Kiersch TA, Zarringhalam NM, Zheng H, Newman K. Combination oxycodone 5mg/ibuprofen 400mg for the treatment of postoperative pain: a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled parallel-group study. Clin Ther. 2004;26:2003–2014.

Weiss ME, Adkinson NF, Hirshman CA. Evaluation of allergic drug reactions in the perioperative period. Anesthesiology. 1989;71:483–486.

Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol. JAMA. 1994;272:1845–1850.

White WB. Defining the problem of treating the patient with hypertension and arthritis pain Am J Med 2009;122(5 suppl):S3–S9.

Wu CL, Raja, SN. Treatment of acute postoperative pain. The Lancet 2011;377(9784):2215–2225.

www.pharmacist.com.

www.uptodate.com.

Yeh SY, Krebs HA, Changcht A. Urinary excretion of meperidine and its metabolites. J Pharm Sciences. 2006;70:867–870.

Yuan Y, Tsoi K, Hunt RH. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper GI bleeding: confusion or confounding?Am J Med. 2006;119:719–727.

Zed and Krenzelok. Treatment of acetaminophen overdose. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1081–1091.

ANTIBIOTICS RESOURCES

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Consumer Information. www.tufts.edu/med/apua/Patients/patient.html.

Ballow CH, Amsden GW. Azithromycin: the first azalide antibiotic. Ann. Pharmacother. 1992;26(10):1253–1261.

CDC. Clostridium difficile infection: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008.

Chu SY, Granneman GR, Pichotta PJ, et al. Effect of moderate or severe hepatic impairment on clarithromycin pharmacokinetics. J Clin Pharmacol. 193;33(5):480–485.

Falagas ME, Karageorgopoulos DE. Adjustment of dosing of antimicrobial agents for bodyweight in adults. Lancet 2010;375:248–251.

Golub LM, Ciancio S, Ramamamurthy NS, Leung M, McNamara TF. Low-dose doxycycline therapy: effect on gingival and crevicular fluid collagenase activity in humans. J Periodontal Res. 1990 Nov;25(6):321–30.

Hardy DJ, Guay DR, Jones RN. Clarithromycin, a unique macrolide: a pharmacokinetic, microbiological, and clinical overview. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992;15(1):39–53.

Leekha S, Terrell CL, Edson RS. General principles of antimicrobial therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. Feb 2011;86(2):156–67.

Mazzei T, Surrenti C, Novelli A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in patients with impaired hepatic function. J Antimicrob Chemother 1993; 31 Suppl E:57–63.

MEDLINEplus Drug Information. US National Library of Medicine. Accessed May 22, 2001.

Moellering RC, Jr. Linezolid: Summaries for patients. Annals of Internal Medicine 138 (January 21, 2003):I–44.

Portnof JE, Israel HA, Brause BD, Behrman DA. Dental premedication protocols for patients with knee and hip prostheses. N Y State Dent J 2006 Apr–May;72(3):20–25. PMID 16774168.

Ray WA, Murray KT, Hall K, Arbogast PG, Stein CM. Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 17;366(20):1881–90.

Simoes JA, et al. Antibiotic resistance patterns of group B streptococcal clinical isolates. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2004;12,1:1–8.

Skidmore R, Kovach R, Walker C, Thomas J, Bradshaw M, Leyden J, Powala C, Ashley R. Effects of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline in the treatment of moderate acne. Arch Dermatol. 2003 Apr;139(4):459–64.

Thiboutot DM, Shalita AR, Yamauchi PS, Dawson C, Arsonnaud S, Kang S. Combination therapy with adapalene and doxycycline for severe acne vulgaris. Skin Med. 2005 May–Jun;4(3):138–46.

Westphal JF, Macrolide-induced clinically relevant drug interactions with cytochrome P-450A (CYP) 3A4: an update focused on clarithromycin, azithromycin and dirithromycin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;50(4):285–295.

Wynn RL, Bergman SA, Meiller TF, et al. Antibiotics in treating oral-facial infections of odontogenic origins: An Update. Gen Dent 2001;49(3):238–240,242,244 passim. www.medscape.com/viewarticle/569858.

Zuckerman JM, Qamar F Bono BR. Antibacterial therapy and newer agents: review of macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin), ketolids (telithromycin) and glycylcyclines (tigecycline). Medical Clinics of North America. 2011;95(4):761–791.

ANTIFUNGALS RESOURCE

Medline Plus. Drug information. Accessed from www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.

ANTIVIRAL RESOURCES

Andrei G, Snoeck R. Emerging drugs for varicella-zoster virus infections. Rega Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2011;16(3):507–535.

Bruxelle J, Pinchinat S. Effectiveness of antiviral treatment on acute phase of herpes zoster and development of post herpetic neuralgia: Review of international publications. Med Mal Infect. 2011;42(2):53–58.

Boivin G, Jovey R, Elliott CT, Patrick DM. Management and prevention of herpes zoster: A Canadian perspective. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2010;21(1):45–52.

Chen N, Li Q, Zhang Y, et al. Vaccination for preventing postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(3):CD00779.

Johnson RW, Bouhassira D, Kassianos G, et al. The impact of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia on quality-of-life. BMC Med. 2010;8:37.

Moon JE. Herpes zoster: Medscape Reference. emedicine.medscape.com/article/218683-overview. Accessed April 30, 2012.

Mortensen GL. Perceptions of herpes zoster and attitudes towards zoster vaccination among 50–65-year-old Danes. Dan Med Bull. 2011;58(12):A4345.

MedLine Plus Drug informationfor acyclovir and valacyclovir: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a681045.html.

www.drugs.com/acyclovir.html.

www.drugs.com/valacyclovir.html.

CYTOCHROME ENZYME SYSTEM RESOURCES

Bressler A. Principles of drug therapy for the elderly patient. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:1564–1577.

Bailey DG, Dresser GK. Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs. Am. J. Cardiovasc. Drugs. 2004;4:281–297.

Classification of in vivo inhibitors of CYP enzymes. www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/DrugInteractionsLabeling/ucm080499.htm2. Accessed July 28, 2011.

Eberl S, Renner B, Neubert A, et al. Role of P-glycoprotein inhibition for drug interactions: evidence from in vitro and pharmacoepidemiological studies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2007;46(12):1039–1049.

Gurley BJ, Swain A, Williams DK, Barone G, Battu SK. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: comparative effects of St. John’s wort, Echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(7):772–779.

Hughes J, Crowe A. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of digoxin and its metabolites by macrolide antibiotics. J Pharmacol Sci.2010;113(4):315–24.

Kim RB. Drugs as P-glycoprotein substrates, inhibitors, and inducers. Drug Metab. Rev. 2002;34:47–54.

Mieles L, Venkataramanan R, Yokoyama I, et al. Interaction between FK506 and Clotrimazole in a liver transplant recipient. Transplantation. 1991;52:1086–1087.

Rengelshausen J, Goggelmann C, Burhenne J, et al. Contribution of increased oral bioavailability and reduced nonglomerular renal clearance of digoxin to the digoxin-clarithromycin interaction. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56(1):32–38.

US FDA. www.fda.gov/Drugs/default.htm.

Vasquez EM, Shin GP, Sifontis N, Benedetti E. Comcomitant Clotrimazole therapy more than doubles the relative oral bioavailability of Tacrolimus. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:587–591.

Wang JS, Backman JT, Wen X, Taavitsainen P, Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Fluvoxamine is a more potent inhibitor of lidocaine metabolism than ketoconazole and erythromycin in vitro. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999 Nov;85(5):201–5.

Zhou S, Yung Chan S, Cher Goh B, Chan E, Duan W, Huang M, McLeod HL. Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by therapeutic drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(3):279–304.

PRESCRIPTION-WRITING RESOURCES

Materia Medica, Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Prescription Writing: www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1640934.

www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/fdadrugratings.html.

www.mrm.uci.edu/DEADrugSchedules.doc.

www.perinatology.com/exposures/Drugs/FDACategories.htm.

www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html.

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES RESOURCES

Atkin, PA. Management of medical emergencies: For the dental team. British Dent J 2006;200(9):532.

Bochner BS, Lichenstein LM. Anaphylaxis. N Eng J Med 1991;324:1785–1790.

Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the US: Summary of the NIAID-Sponsored expert panel. J Allergy Clin Immunol Dec 2010;1105–1116.

Brackenridge A, Wallbank H, Lawrenson RA, Russell-Jones D. Emergency management of diabetes and hypoglycaemia. Emerg Med J 2006;23:183–185. doi:10.1136/emj.2005.026252.

DeShazo RD, et al. Allergic reactions to drugs and biological agents. JAMA 1997;278:1895–1906.

Fenton AM, et al. Vasovagal syncope. Ann Intern Med November 7, 2000;133:714–725.

Field JM, et al. 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122[suppl 3]:S640-S656.

Garza AG, Gratton MC, Salomone JA, et al. Improved patients survival using a modified resuscitation protocol for out-of- hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation. 2009;119:2597–2605.

Goldstein DS, Spanarkel M, Pitterman A, Toltzis R, Gratz E, Epstein S, et al. Circulatory control mechanisms in vasodepressor syncope. Am Heart J 1982;104:1071–1075.

Hass, DA. Management of medical emergencies in the dental office: conditions in each country, the extent of treatment by the dentist. Anesth Prog 2006 Spring;53(1):20–24.

Huang F, Chawla K, Jarvinen KM, Nowak-Wegrzyn A. Anaphylaxis in a New York City pediatric emergency department: triggers, treatments, and outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:162–168.e3.

Joint Committee on Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Practice parameters: The investigation and management of anaphylaxis. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1998;101(6):S465–S528.

Kapoor WN. Syncope. N Engl J Med December 21, 2000;343:1856–1862.

Lott C, Hennes HJ, Dick W. Stroke, A medical emergency. J Accid Emerg Med 1999;16(1):2–7.

Low PA, Opfer-Geheking TL, McPhee BR, et al. Prospective evaluation of clinical characteristics of orthostatic hypotension. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;70(7):617–622.

Mackenzie R, Sutcliff RC. Immediate assessment and management of acute medical emergencies. J Royal Army Med Corps 2004;150,3(SUPP/2):107–118.

Malamed, SF. Managing medical emergencies. J Am Dent Assoc 124(8):40–53.

Manolis AS, Linzer M, Salem D, Estes NA III. Syncope: current diagnostic evaluation and management. Ann Intern Med 1990;112:850–863.

Mattu, A. The 2010 AHA Guidelines: The 4 Cs of cardiac arrest care. Circulation. 2010;122:S640–S656.

Sclater A, Alagiakrishnan K. Orthostatic hypotension. A primary care primer for assessment and treatment. Geriatrics 2004;59(Aug):22–27.

Simons FER, Ardusso LRF, Bilo MB, et al. World Allergy Organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;127:593.e22.

Simons FER, et al. World Allergy Organization guidelines for anaphylaxis management. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;12(4):389–399.

Toback SL. Medical emergency preparedness in office practice. Am Fam Phys 2007;75:1679–1684, 1686.

CONSCIOUS SEDATION RESOURCES

ADA.org. ADA Statement on The Use of Conscious Sedation, Deep Sedation and General Anesthesia in Dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133;364–365. www.ada.org/prof/resources/positions/statements/useof.asp.

ADA Council on Scientific Affairs: The American Dental Association’s Guidelines for the Use of Conscious Sedation, Deep Sedation and General Anesthesia for Dentists. jada.ada.org/cgi/reprint/133/3/364.pdf.

Aldrete JA. The post-anesthesia recovery score revisited. J Clin Anesth 1995;7:89–91.

Dental Sedation Teachers Group. Sedation in dentistry. The competent graduate. 2000.

Department of Health. Conscious Sedation in the Provision of Dental Care. Report of an Expert Group on Sedation for Dentistry. Commissioned by the Department of Health. 2003. www.dh.gov.uk.

Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry. Standards for conscious sedation. Report of an Expert Working Group Convened by the Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry. October 2000.

Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry and Dental Sedation Teachers Group. Conscious sedation. A referral guide for dental practitioners. September 2001.

White PF, Song D. New criteria for fast-tracking after outpatient anesthesia: A comparison with the modified Aldrete’s Scoring System. Anesth Analg 1999;88:1069–1072.

TOP 150 DRUGS RESOURCES

ADA/PDR Guide to Dental Therapeutics, Fourth Edition. American Dental Association, 2006.

www.rxlist.com.

www.drugs.com.

ANEMIA RESOURCES

Anderson GJ, Frazer DM, McLaren GD. Iron absorption and metabolism. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25:129–135.

Benjamin LJ, Swinson GI, Nagel RL. Sickle cell anemia day hospital: an approach for the management of uncomplicated painful crises. Blood 2000;95:1130–1136.

Breymann C. Iron deficiency and anemia in pregnancy: modern aspects of diagnosis and therapy. Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases. Nov/Dec 2002.

Clark SF. Iron deficiency anemia: diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25:122–128.

Fleming RE, Bacon BR. Orchestration of iron hemostasis. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1741–1744.

MedlinePlus. Sickle cell anemia. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sicklecellanemia.html.

MedlinePlus. Thalassemia. www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/thalassemia.html.

Nemeth E. Iron regulation and erythropoiesis. Curr Opin Hematol. 2008;15:169–175.

WHO Scientific Group on Nutritional Anaemias. Nutritional anaemias. Report of a WHO Scientific Group (meeting held in Geneva from March 13–17, 1967). World Health Organization. Geneva, 1968.

POLYCYTHEMIA RESOURCES

Anía B, Suman V, Sobell J, Codd M, Silverstein M, Melton L. Trends in the incidence of polycythemia vera among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents, 1935–1989. Am J Hematol 1994;47(2):89–93. PMID 8092146.

Berlin NI. Diagnosis and classification of polycythemias. Semin Hematol 1975;12:339.

Fjellner B, Hägermark O. Pruritus in polycythemia vera: treatment with aspirin and possibility of platelet involvement. Acta Derm Venereol 1979;59(6):505–512. PMID 94209.

Passamonti F, Malabarba L, Orlandi E, Baratè C, Canevari A, Brusamolino E, Bonfichi M, Arcaini L, Caberlon S, Pascutto C, Lazzarino M. Polycythemia vera in young patients: a study on the long-term risk of thrombosis, myelofibrosis and leukemia. Haematologica 2003;88(1):13–8. PMID 12551821.

Torgano G, Mandelli C, Massaro P, Abbiati C, Ponzetto A, Bertinieri G, Bogetto S, Terruzzi E, de Franchis R. Gastroduodenal lesions in polycythaemia vera: frequency and role of Helicobacter pylori. Br J Haematol 2002;117(1):198–202. PMID 11918555.

HEMOCHROMATOSIS RESOURCES

Alexander J, Kowdley KV. Hereditary hemochromatosis: genetics, pathogenesis, and clinical management. Ann Hepatol 2005;Oct–Dec;4(4):240–247.

Beutler E. Hemochromatosis: genetics and pathophysiology. Annu Rev Med 2006;57:331–347.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. St. Louis: W.B. Saunders; 2005:908–910, 915–917.

Olynyk JK, et al. A population-based study of the clinical expression of the hemochromatosis gene. N Engl J Med 1999 September;341(10):75. PMID 10471457.

BLEEDING DISORDERS RESOURCES

Alexander JH, Becker RC, Bhatt DL, et al. Apixaban, an oral, direct, selective factor Xa inhibitor, in combination with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: results of the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) trial. Circulation 2009;119:2877–2885.

Ball JH. Management of the anticoagulated dental patient. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1996;17:1100–1102,1104,1106 passim.

Blinder D, Manor Y, Martinowitz U, Taicher S, Hashomer T. Dental extractions in patients maintained on continued oral anticoagulant: comparision of local hemostatic modalities. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;88:137–140.

Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, et al. Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011;364:806–817.

Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139–1151.

Connolly, SJ, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139–1151.

Crowther MA, Donovan D, Harrison L, McGinnis J, Ginsberg J. Low dose oral vitamin K reverses over-anticoagulation due to warfarin. Thromb Haemost 1998;79:1116–1118.

Devani P, Lavery KM, Howell CJ. Dental extractions in patients on warfarin: is alteration of anticoagulant regime necessary? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998;36:107–111.

Eerenberg ES, Kamphuisen PW, Sijpkens MK, Meijers JC, Buller HR, Levi M. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation 2011;124:1573–1579.

Eisert WG, Hauel N, Stangier J, Wienen W, Clemens A, van Ryn J. Dabigatran: an oral novel potent reversible nonpeptide inhibitor of thrombin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30:1885–1889.

Ezekowitz MD, et al. Rationale and design of RE-LY: randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulation therapy, warfarin, compared with dabigatran. American Heart Journal. 2009;157:805–810.

Ferreira J, et al. Dabigatran compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and symptomatic heart failure: A Subgroup Analysis Of the RE-LY Trial. AHA 2011 abstract.

Forbes CD, Barr RD, Reid G, et al. Tranexamic acid in control of haemorrhage after dental extraction in haemophilia and Christmas disease. BMJ 1972;2:311–313.

Gasper R, Brenner B, Ardekian L, Peled M, Laufer D. Use of tranexamic acid mouthwash to prevent postoperative bleeding in oral surgery patients on anticoagulant medication. Quintessence Int 1997;28:375–379.

Gibson CM, Mega JL, Burton P, et al. Rationale and design of the Anti-Xa therapy to lower cardiovascular events in addition to standard therapy in subjects with acute coronary syndrome-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 51 (ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51) trial: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in subjects with acute coronary syndrome. Am Heart J 2011;161:815–821.e6.

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