5: Scalp and Muscles of Facial Expression

CHAPTER 5

SCALP AND MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION

Overview and Topographic Anatomy

Overview of the Scalp

Vascular Supply of the Scalp

Nerve Supply of the Scalp

Overview of Muscles of Facial Expression

Vascular Supply of the Face

Nerve Supply of the Face

Clinical Correlates

Questions

Overview and Topographic Anatomy

GENERAL INFORMATION

SCALP

The area bordered by the forehead, superior part of the cranium, and occipital area immediately superior to the superior nuchal line

The lateral portion of the scalp blends with the temporal area because it extends inferiorly to the zygomatic arch

Anatomy of the scalp is important because of frequent trauma in this region

FACE

The area bordered within the hairline, anterior border of the auricles, and the chin

Major contents: eyes, nose, mouth, muscles of facial expression, muscles of mastication, parotid gland, trigeminal nerve, and facial nerve

BONES

Bones of the facial skeleton:

Frontal bone

Zygomatic bone (zygoma)

Maxilla

Palatine bone

Nasal bone

Mandible

Besides the nasal bone, the most commonly fractured bone of the facial skeleton is the zygomatic bone

MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION

Innervated by the facial nerve

Derivatives of the 2nd pharyngeal arch

Originate from either bone or fascia and insert on the skin

The Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System (SMAS) is a term used to describe the relationship of the muscles of facial expression located within the superficial fascia

The SMAS is maneuvered in a rhytidectomy (facelift)

There is no deep fascia along the face

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Overview of the Scalp

GENERAL INFORMATION

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Vascular Supply of the Scalp

GENERAL INFORMATION

Highly vascularized; the vessels anastomose freely on the scalp

Arteries are derived from the external and the internal carotid arteries

The neurovascular supply arises from the anterior, lateral, and posterior scalp regions

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VENOUS DRAINAGE

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Nerve Supply of the Scalp

SENSORY DISTRIBUTION

Sensory supply is derived from all 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve, branches of the cervical plexus, and upper cervical dorsal rami

These nerves travel in the scalp’s connective tissue layer

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Jan 5, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on 5: Scalp and Muscles of Facial Expression
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