Bone augmentation: block bone grafts
Bone grafts taken from patient themselves are the “gold standard” in bone reconstruction. Autogenous bone grafts can be harvested from intraoral sites (Fig. 39.1) for small defects, or from extraoral sites (calvaria, iliac crest, tibia) for larger defects.
Bone augmentation: during the healing process, block bone grafts provide a scaffold for new bone growth, and simultaneously undergo a resorption process. This resorption is greater the first year after grafting, and stabilizes after 1 year of implant loading (Chiapasco et al., 2009).
Implant survival: survival rates of dental implants inserted into block bone grafts are lower than those for implants placed in native bone. Furthermore, a two-stage approach (implant placement after 4 months of healing) is associated with better survival rates than a one-stage approach (simultaneous implant placement).
Rough surface implants have a better survival rate than machined surface implants, when placed into bone block grafts.