30 Swellings: Malignant neoplasms, lymphoma, metastatic neoplasms
Definition: Malignant neoplasm arising from lymphocytes; based on the “Revised European-American Lymphoma classification” (REAL), the WHO (2001, updated 2008) classified lymphomas in three broad groups (B, T or NK (natural killer)) according to cell type, plus less common groups e.g. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).
Prevalence (approximate): Lymphomas are rare but, with the increase in HIV disease, are becoming more common.
Age mainly affected: Young adults. However, African Burkitt lymphoma typically affects children < 12–13 years age.
Gender mainly affected: M > F.
Etiopathogenesis: Lymphomas affecting the oral cavity are mainly B-cell lymphomas. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is more common in immunosuppression/HIV and autoimmune disease and often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; human herpesvirus-4). Plasmablastic lymphoma (polymorphic immunoblastic B lymphoproliferative disease) is predisposed by HIV disease and may be EBV-related, as is African Burkitt lymphoma (BL).
HL affects males predominantly and may have a family history, history of EBV inf/>