22: Introduction to the Upper Limb, Back, Thorax, and Abdomen

CHAPTER 22

INTRODUCTION TO THE UPPER LIMB, BACK, THORAX, AND ABDOMEN

Overview and Topographic Anatomy

Osteology

Muscles

Contents of the Thorax

Contents of the Abdomen

Vascular Supply

Nerve Supply

Questions

Overview and Topographic Anatomy

GENERAL INFORMATION

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Osteology

UPPER LIMB

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BACK

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THORAX

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ABDOMEN

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Muscles

UPPER LIMB

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BACK

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THORAX

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ABDOMEN

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Contents of the Thorax

PLEURAL CAVITY

There are 2 pleural cavities

The cavity is composed of a 2-layered pleural sac that secretes a thin layer of serous fluid

Visceral layer—lines the lung and fissures

Parietal layer—lines the wall of the cavity

Costal—lines the cavity along the ribs

Mediastinal—lines the cavity along the mediastinum

Diaphragmatic—lines the cavity along the diaphragm

Cervical (cupula)—lines the cavity forming a dome in the ribs opposite the apex of the lung

Pleural reflections—Abrupt lines where the parietal pleura folds back or changes direction

Vertebral (posterior)—where costal pleura is continuous with the mediastinal pleura at the vertebral column

Costal (inferior)—where costal pleura is continuous with diaphragmatic pleura

Sternal (anterior)—where costal pleura is continuous with the mediastinal pleura posterior to sternum

Boundaries

Anterior midline—6th rib (right) 4th rib (left)

Midclavicular line—8th rib

Midaxillary line—10th rib

Scapular line—12th rib

Inferior border of lungs in quiet respiration

Anterior midline—6th rib (right) 4th rib (left)

Midclavicular line—6th rib

Midaxillary line—8th rib

Scapular line—10th rib

Pleural recesses—potential spaces in the pleural cavity where parts of the parietal pleura contact one another during quiet respiration

Costomediastinal—potential space where costal and mediastinal pleurae come together

Costodiaphragmatic—potential space where costal and diaphragmatic pleurae come together

Pulmonary ligament—a fold created where the mediastinal pleura at the root of the lung come together and extend inferiorly

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LUNGS

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MEDIASTINUM

Region in the middle of the thorax between the two pleural sacs

Subdivided into superior and inferior

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HEART

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Contents of the Abdomen

STOMACH

Part of the foregut

There are 4 anatomical parts of the stomach:

Cardia—where esophagus enters the stomach

Fundus—created by the superior portion of the greater curvature

Body—primary central area

Pylorus—inferior portion that continues to narrow until reaching the pyloric sphincter

The mucosal lining of the stomach are raised elevations known as gastric rugae

There are 2 major curvatures:

Greater curvature—provides attachment for some remnants of the dorsal mesogastrium:

Gastrophrenic

Gastrosplenic

Greater omentum

Lesser curvature—provides attachment for remnants of the ventral mesogastrium:

Lesser omentum

Hepatogastric portion (hepatoduodenal portion does not attach to the stomach)

There are 2 sphincters associated with the stomach:

Esophageal—not an anatomical sphincter

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Jan 5, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on 22: Introduction to the Upper Limb, Back, Thorax, and Abdomen
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