Dental Radiology

Examination
Effective dose (μSν)
Equivalent background exposure (days)
Intraoral
Rectangular collimation
   
 Posterior bitewings: PSP or F- speed film
5
0.6
 Full-mouth: PSP or F-speed film
35
4
 Full-mouth: CCD sensor (estimated)
17
2
Round collimation
   
 Full-mouth: D-speed film
388
46
 Full-mouth: PSP or F-speed film
171
20
 Full-mouth: CCD sensor (estimated)
85
10
Extraoral
Panoramic
9–24
1–3
Cephalometric
2–6
0.3–0.7
Cone-beam CT
   
 Large field of view
68–1073
8–126
 Medium field of view
45–860
5–101
 Small field of view
19–652
2–77
Multi-slice CT
   
 Head: conventional protocol
860–1500
101–177
 Head: low-dose protocol
180–534
21–63
 Abdomen
5300
624
 Chest
5800
682
Plain films
   
 Skull
70
8
 Chest
20
2
 Barium enema
7200
847
CCD charge-coupled device, PSP photostimulable phosphor

    2.2 Normal Radiographic Anatomy (Fig. 2.1)

    A336937_1_En_2_Fig1_HTML.jpg
    Fig. 2.1

    Panoramic radiograph showing normal anatomical structures. Use the numbers in the radiograph to correspond to the key
    Key: 1 zygomatic process of the maxilla, 2 posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, 3 pterygomaxillary fissure, 4 floor of the maxillary sinus, 5 nasal septum, 6 inferior nasal concha, 7 inferior orbital rim, 8 hard palate, 9 ghost image of opposite hard palate, 10 infraorbital canal, 11 mandibular condyle, 12 glenoid fossa, 13 articular eminence, 14 external auditory meatus, 15 coronoid process of the mandible, 16 zygomatico-temporal suture, 17 zygomatic arch, 18 pterygoid plate, 19 middle cranial fossa, 20 sigmoid notch, 21 maxillary tuberosity, 22 external oblique ridge, 23 mandibular canal, 24 mental foramen, 25 soft palate, 26 pharyngeal airway, 27 dorsal surface of tongue, 28 palatoglossal airway, 29 styloid process, 30 posterior pharyngeal wall, 31 epiglottis, 32 base of tongue, 33 hyoid bone, 34 intervertebral disk space between C1 and C2, 35 submandibular salivary gland fossa, 36 anterior arch of C1

    2.3 Radiographic Interpretation (Fig. 2.2)

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    Fig 2.2

    Radiographic image analysis algorithm representing the diagnostic process
    Considerations when a lesion is noted on a radiograph:

    • Location: in relation to teeth, inferior alveolar canal; localized vs. generalized, unilateral vs. bilateral, single vs. multifocal
    • Shape: regular vs. irregular, hydraulic
    • Size: extension
    • Periphery: well-defined, moderately well-defined or poorly defined

      • Corticated vs. noncorticated
    • Internal structure: radiolucent, mixed, radiopaque, unilocular vs. multilocular
    • See table 2.2 for characteristic radiographic features of common disease categories effect on surrounding structures: root resorption/displacement, cortical bone expansion/resorption, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) canal, maxillary sinus floor

      Table 2.2

      Radiographic features of lesions by categories
       
      Location
      Shape
      Periphery
      Internal structure
      Effect on adjacent roots
      Effects on adjacent bone
      Cysts
      Odontogenic: teeth-bearing areas. Dentigerous: around crown. Radicular: periapical or lateral. Lateral periodontal: lateral to root
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      Dec 11, 2016 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on Dental Radiology
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