Phenomena studied
Pathophysiological, histological, microbiological, and radiographic events
Pain, swelling, or other symptoms present now or in the future
Criteria for classification and grading of disease
Purpose from the professions’ point of view
To study the medical facts of apical periodontitis in order to improve knowledge of how to prevent and cure
To identify and describe the incidence, frequency, and intensity for patient-related outcomes (pain, swelling, spread)
To decide upon common criteria for classification, define different severities of disease, and construct decision aids to guide clinical action
Purpose from patients’ point of view
To get an explanation of the situation
To value and accept or not accept the situation
To understand what is regarded “sick,” respectively “healthy,” and to be helped to make a clinical decision in his or her situation
Example of issues of concern regarding “apical periodontitis in root-filled teeth”
The biofilm in root-filled teeth.
The immunological response to persistent root canal infection
Factors that can predict future pain or negative impact on general health
Reassessment of the criteria for “success” and “failure” following root canal treatment
The three approaches to disease do not replace but complement each other. It is also the case that they are strongly intertwined. However, using the matrix of “disease,” “illness,” and “sickness” possibly makes it easier to understand and to identify and rationalize the different natures of questions and discussions.

1.13 The Authors

The endodontists contributing to this book about apical periodontitis have that common denominator that they are or were in some way affiliated with the Department of Endodontics or Oral Microbiology at the University of Gothenburg. This means that many of the ideas, experiences, and knowledge conveyed in this book, for many years and at a large number of hours, have been worn and soaked in conjunction with lectures, seminars, courses, and conferences.
In addition, we, who contributed as authors to this book, have been cooperating and discussing with many other endodontists, other specialists (dentists and physicians), general practitioners, philosophers, educators, and psychologists throughout the years. No one mentioned and no one forgotten.
However, a few people have in particular, but in different ways over the years contributed to the strong clinical and research environment that has been “our school.” They have been our inspiration, and their contribution has been particularly significant for creating, developing, and retaining endodontics as a strong discipline in Gothenburg, Sweden, Scandinavia, and the world. Late Professor Bure Engström, late Professor Åke Möller, Professor Gunnar Bergenholtz, Professor Gunnar Dahlen, and Professor Claes Reit all have been invaluable, each in his own way.
We are all grateful and proud to have been able to pursue parts of our professional education and training in this inspiring setting.
DDS Pernilla Holmberg is a prosthodontists and has a background in Malmö and Jönköping, being two other dental colleges in Sweden with strong research and clinical environments.

1.14 The Book

I hope that the various contributions to this book will provide both a comprehensive and in-depth description of the issues, which from different aspects appear when dentists or doctors, their patients, and other dental and health services are faced with “apical periodontitis in root-filled teeth.”
As for the references, it has been our ambition not to mention all the published works that have dealt with an issue or topic. Our objective has instead been carving out a number of key references. With these as a starting point, it is easy to, via various search functions in publicly accessible databases such as PubMed, search further for more references. The general international trend with more and more magazines and publications also means that every reference list pretty soon tends to become outdated. Those interested who want to keep themselves updated must constantly follow the development by taking advantage of new publications.
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Oct 24, 2018 | Posted by in Periodontics | Comments Off on Introduction
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