This experimental study was designed to (1) produce buccal translation of maxillary premolars and (2) evaluate the effects on the buccal alveolar bone.
A randomized split-mouth study was designed based on 7 adult male beagle dogs. The experimental side received a custom cantilever appliance fabricated to produce a translatory force through the maxillary second premolar’s center of resistance. The contralateral second premolar received no appliance and served as the control. The premolars underwent 6-7 weeks of buccal translation, followed by 3 weeks of fixed retention. Biweekly tooth movements were evaluated using intraoral and radiographic measurements. Pretreatment and posttreatment models were measured to assess tipping. Three-dimensional microscopic tomography was used to quantify the amount and density of buccal bone. Bone formation and turnover were assessed using fluorescent labeling, hematoxylin and eosin staining, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and bone sialoprotein immunostaining.
The applied force (100 g of force) translated (1.4 mm) and minimally tipped (4°) the experimental teeth. Lateral translation produced dehiscences at the mesial and distal roots, with 2.0 mm and 2.2 mm loss of vertical bone height, respectively. Bone thickness decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) at the apical (∼0.4 mm), midroot (∼0.4 mm), and coronal (∼0.2 mm) levels. Fluorescent imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunostaining for bone sialoprotein all showed new bone formation extending along the entire periosteal surface of the second premolar’s buccal plate. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining demonstrated greater osteoclastic activity on the experimental than that of control sections.
New buccal bone forms on the periosteal surface during and after tooth translation, but the amount of bone that forms is less than the amount of bone loss, resulting in a net decrease in buccal bone thickness and a loss of crestal bone.
It is possible to translate teeth bucally with little or no tipping.
Buccal translation of premolars results in 2 mm long dehiscences.
Buccal translation produces new bone on the periosteal surface of the buccal cortex.
Bone loss on the endosteal surface is greater than bone deposition on the periosteal surface when buccally translating teeth.
New bone formation continues during consolidation.
Transverse maxillary deficiencies and crowding are common problems often treated with archwire-assisted expansion. Well-documented adverse effects of dentoalveolar expansion include dental tipping and loss of buccal alveolar bone. The expansion causes uncontrolled tipping or tipping of the crown buccally relative to the root, which occurs because the forces are applied occlusal to the tooth’s center of resistance (COR). Uncontrolled tipping concentrates pressure at the most coronal portion of buccal alveolar bone, leading to resorption of the crestal bone. , Bone loss occurs because of microfractures that occur when the bone is strained beyond its adaptive limits. The damaged bone cannot be remodeled quickly enough and is consequently resorbed, producing dehiscences. Along with tipping and dehiscence formation, there also appears to be new bone formation on the periosteal surface of buccal cortical bone after archwire expansion.
The appliance system must deliver a buccal force near the tooth’s COR to avoid tipping, This system produces bodily movement and distributes the forces over a larger area of the root’s surface, which might be expected to produce less crestal bone loss. Lower forces might reduce strains enough to be within the physiological limits, which would be expected to increase bone mass. , A recent clinical study provided radiographic evidence of increased buccal bone after premolars were translated buccally with a cantilever. Because bone deforms within its elastic limits, , histologic confirmation is required to ensure that this was new rather than displaced bone.
The purpose of this study was to experimentally evaluate the effects of buccal translation on the surrounding bone. The specific aims were to determine if (1) excessive tipping can be avoided, (2) dehiscences can be eliminated, and (3) new will bone form along the buccal periosteal surface.
Material and methods
Seven skeletally mature, periodontally healthy, beagle dogs with complete dentitions, between 1 and 2 years of age and weighing 21-29 pounds, were used because their bone more closely approximates human bone than that of most other experimental models. The protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (No. 2014-0275) at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry.
An electronically generated random number table was used to assign the experimental side of the maxillary arch to receive an archwire expansion appliance. The control side received no appliance. Following 10 days of quarantine, baseline records were obtained, including intraoral photographs, periapical radiographs, and alginate impressions. Periapical radiographs were taken on the experimental sides using a size 4 phosphor plate and a custom holder that stabilized the film and standardized angulations and distances ( Fig 1 ). Alginate impressions were taken using custom trays made of Triad material. Models were poured using die stone for the fabrication of occlusal radiographic guides and appliances.
The appliance was designed to produce buccal translation of the second premolar, using the canine and fourth premolar as anchor teeth. Orthodontic band material was custom pinched and welded to fit these 3 teeth. Each tooth’s inner surfaces were microabraded with 60-micron alumina particles, and several small holes were drilled with a 0.25 round bur to enhance band retention. Tubes with a 0.022 in slot size were welded and soldered to the bands on the canine (0° offset, 0° torque, and 0.051-in headgear tube) and fourth premolar (10° distal offset, –14° torque, and 0.045-in headgear tube). To stabilize the canine and fourth premolar, and to protect the second premolar from the cheek, a 0.045 in stainless steel wire was made passive in the headgear tubes. The ends were covered with solder and polished smooth for animal comfort ( Fig 2 ). A 10 mm 0.045 in wire segment was soldered perpendicular to the extension arm at the apical extent to serve as a cheek guard.
A stainless steel vertical extension arm 1.5 mm in diameter was welded onto the second premolar band ( Fig 2 , A ) and positioned 1 mm distal to the crown tip. The distal premolar root is wider and typically tipped distally, while the mesial root extends vertically ( Fig 1 , B ). Since the furcation was located coronal to the alveolar crest, the experimental second premolar was treated as a single-rooted tooth, and the COR was estimated halfway (50%) between the root apex and alveolar crest ( Fig 1 , B ). The apical aspect of the extension arm was positioned at the estimated COR, which were determined by periapical films that were imported into Dolphin Imaging and traced.
The animals were sedated, and vital signs were monitored throughout the procedure. Small notches were made in the cusp tips of the second premolars with a mosquito shaped micro-diamond bur (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) to serve as references for the caliper measurements. Amalgam markers, approximately 1.5 mm in diameter, were placed using a 330 carbide bur in the canine, second premolar, and fourth premolar on the experimental side for radiographic measurements of tooth movement. Two 6 mm wide Imtec miniscrew implants were placed in the midline of the palate mesial and distal to the second premolars. They served as references for the radiographic measurements. Retention grooves were placed in each of the banded teeth with a 330 carbide bur. The teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and rinsed for 10 seconds. The bands were cemented, and excess cement was removed.
A 0.021 in × 0.025 in beta-titanium wire was bent to act as a cantilever delivering a 100-gram buccal force on the second premolars. This force level was based on a previous dog study evaluating the effects of expansion. The force level was regularly checked using a Correx Tension gauge. The wire was first engaged in the second premolar tube and cinched distal to it. The loop at the end of the wire was tied to the tip of the vertical extension with a 0.012 in stainless steel ligature tie. Coe-Pak periodontal dressing was applied to the apical extent of the vertical arm to prevent irritation of the mucosa. The other end of the wire was cinched gingivally distal to the fourth premolar tube. The animals were maintained on a soft diet for the duration of the experiment to prevent appliance loss or damage.
Data were collected every 2 weeks, starting on the day of appliance placement. Interpremolar width was measured in triplicate at the cusp notches using a digital caliper and averaged (replicate analyses produced an intraclass correlation [ICC] of 0.99). Duplicate measures of pocket depths were taken at the mesiobuccal, buccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, lingual, and distolingual aspects of the second premolars and averaged. Force levels were recorded, a new segment of wire was activated to 100 grams, and occlusal radiographs were obtained.
After the radiographic and caliper measurements showed approximately 1.5 mm of buccal tooth movement, the appliance was made passive by removing the active beta-titanium wire and second premolar band, and bonding a passive 0.030 in stainless steel wire to the first, second, and third premolars. Occlusal radiographs, caliper measurements, and photographs were obtained, this was followed by a 3-week consolidation period, during which no tooth movement was performed. Three weeks was chosen because new alveolar woven bone becomes evident after 2 weeks, and immature lamellar bone can be seen after 3-4 weeks.
Regions of new bone formation were identified using fluorescent bone labels (calcein and alizarin) that were administered 3 times to each dog at 2-week intervals; thus, making it possible to evaluate new bone formation during tooth movement and the consolidation phase. Following the consolidation period, final records were obtained, the animals were sacrificed, and the maxilla was stored in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4°C.
Occlusal radiographs were imported into ViewBox 4 and calibrated using a 20-mm ruler ( Fig 3 , A ). The perpendicular distances from the amalgam markers on the canine, second premolar, and fourth premolar were measured to a sagittal reference line drawn passing midway through the 2 palatal miniscrews. Repeated measurements, performed on separate days, produced ICCs of 0.97, 0.99, and 0.99 for the canines, second premolars, and fourth premolar measures, respectively. The initial and final maxillary models were laser scanned using Ortho Insight 3D to quantify tipping. Three standardized landmarks were digitized ( Fig 3 , B ) and the angle connecting them was measured (ICC = 0.982).
With the overlying soft tissues intact, the maxilla was sectioned to produce blocks (26 mm wide × 19 mm high) containing the first, second, and most of the third premolars. The blocks, which included 3-4 mm of bone apical to the root tips, were placed into microscopic computed tomographic (microCT) tubes with an internal diameter of 27 mm and kept immersed in 0.5% paraformaldehyde. The tubes were loaded into the microCT 35 desktop scanner and scanned at 30 μm resolution, using 55 kVp, 145 μA, and 600 ms integration time. Three-dimensional reconstructions, as well as 2-dimensional slices (30 μm thick), were generated using the Scanco microCT v6.0 software. For three-dimensional reconstruction, the grayscale images were smoothed by a Gaussian filter with a sigma value of 0.9 and a support value of 1. The threshold boundaries for the scans were set between 260 and 1,000 Hounsfield units.
The following linear measurements were taken from 2-dimensional axial slices of both the experimental and control premolars: (1) buccal bone height measured from the most lingual aspect of buccal bone at the level of the apex to the mesiodistal center of the buccal bone crest on both mesial and distal roots; (2) total tooth height measured from the cusp tip to the root apex; (3) total root height measured from the center of the pulpal canal at the furcation to the root apex; and (4) buccal bone thickness measured from the most lingual to the most buccal aspect of buccal bone at the cervical (3 mm apical to the level of the furcation), mid (exactly halfway between the cervical and apical measurements), and apical (measured at the tip of the apex) levels. Duplicate measurements taken on different days were averaged (ICCs of the duplicate measures ranged from 0.97-0.99).
The experimental roots were randomly assigned for fluorescence microscopy or decalcified staining. Two control specimens were randomly allocated for staining, and 5 were allocated for fluorescence microscopy. The specimens analyzed with fluorescence microscopy were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, dehydrated in graded alcohol, embedded in methyl methacrylate, and allowed to polymerize. Blocks were sectioned with an IsoMet diamond saw to a thickness of approximately 150-200 μm. Sections were made in a coronal plane, parallel to the long axis of the root, polished to a thickness of about 75-100 μm, and examined using the Leica TCS SP5 confocal microscope.
Specimens prepared for staining were decalcified in 0.5 M calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate dehydrated in graded alcohol and lastly butyl-alcohol, and infiltrated and embedded in paraffin blocks. The blocks were sectioned with a microtome parallel to the long axis of the root at a thickness of 5-10 μm and mounted on glass slides. Hematoxylin and eosin(H&E) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed, as well as bone sialoprotein (BSP) immunostaining.
Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 22 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill). Because the data were normally distributed, central tendencies and dispersions were described using means and standard errors. Paired t tests were used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.