40: Vital Signs

SECTION 6 Vital Signs

Factors That Affect Body Temperature

Factors Effects
Exercise Increases body temperature
Hormonal influences Decrease or increase body temperature
Before ovulation Body temperature decreased below baseline
During ovulation Body temperature increased to baseline or higher
Menopause Periodic increase in body temperature
Time of day variations:  
Early morning Temperature is lowest
Daytime Body temperature rises
Evening Body temperature peaks by 0.5º-1º F (0.3º-0.6º C)
Stress (physical and emotional) Increases body temperature
Warm environment Increases body temperature
Cold environment Decreases body temperature
Infection Increases body temperature
Tachypnea (rapid breathing) Decreases oral temperature
Age For persons >70 years of age, average oral body temperature is 96.8º F (36º C)
Hot liquids Increase oral temperature for about 15 minutes
Cold liquids Decrease oral temperature for about 15 minutes
Smoking Increases oral temperature for about 30 minutes

Acceptable Ranges of Heart (Pulse) Rate

Age Heart Rate (Beats per Minute)
Infant 120-160
Toddler 90-140
Preschooler 80-110
School-age child 75-100
Adolescent 60-100
Adult 60-100

Adapted from Potter PA, Perry AG: Fundamentals of nursing, ed 7, St Louis, 2009, Mosby.

Factors That Influence Heart (Pulse) Rate

Factor Increased Pulse Rate Decreased Pulse Rate
Exercise Short-term exercise

Temperature Fever and heat Hypothermia Emotions and stress Acute pain and anxiety increase sympathetic stimulation, affecting heart rate Unrelieved severe pain increases parasympathetic stimulation, affecting heart rate; relaxation Medications Positive chronotropic drugs, e.g., epinephrine Negative chronotropic drugs, e.g., digitalis, beta and calcium blockers Hemorrhage Loss of blood increases sympathetic stimulation   Postural changes Standing or sitting Lying down Pulmonary conditions Diseases causing poor oxygenation such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  

From Potter PA, Perry AG: />

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Jan 1, 2015 | Posted by in Dental Hygiene | Comments Off on 40: Vital Signs
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