2: Biochemistry and Physiology

2 Biochemistry and Physiology


Biological systems depend upon molecules that serve various functions. They may serve as structural components, regulatory agents, energy sources, enzymatic agents, osmotic regulators, transport agents, and agents of hereditary information. Each of these compounds has unique characteristics that enable them to perform their function in both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This section will focus on these biochemical agents and relate their function to biological systems in which they participate.

1.1 Sugars and Carbohydrates

1.2 Amino Acids and Proteins

A. Protein terminology

2. Characteristics of weak acids and weak bases. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation describes the relationship between pK and pH. Can be used to determine the dissociation of ionizable groups at a given pH.

1.3 Lipids

B. Classification of lipids

1.4 Nucleic Acids and Metabolism

1.5 Nutrients and Minerals

A Vitamins—traditionally divided into fat and water-soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, D, K, and E are fat-soluble, and the remaining nine are water-soluble. Due to the ability of the fat-soluble vitamins to be retained in lipid throughout the body, the potential for toxicity is, in general, greater than that of the water-soluble vitamins.


2.1 Bioenergetics

The study of the energy transductions that occur in living cells and the chemical processes underlying these transductions.

A. Terminology

2.2 Enzymology

Enzymes are biological compounds that catalyze chemical reactions. Enzymes can alter the rates of reactions but cannot alter the equilibrium of the reaction. Most enzymes are highly specific since they associate with substrates through specific sites in the catalytic center of the enzyme.

2.3 Catabolism

The degradation of large complex molecules into smaller, simple products

A. Carbohydrate catabolism

B. Lipid catabolism (Figure 2-10):

D. Protein catabolism

Jan 5, 2015 | Posted by in General Dentistry | Comments Off on 2: Biochemistry and Physiology
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